Depression and Bone Metabolism A Review
ABSTRACT There are data to suggest low bone mineral density is disproportionately prevalent among those with psychiatric disorders. This paper aims to review the current evidence on the relationship between depression and bone mineral density, and identify potential mechanisms.
Relevant sources were identified from the Pubmed and Web of Science (ISI) databases from the first relevant publication in 1994 to the present, 2007, using a combination of key words and terms including depression, major depressive disorder, osteoporosis, bone mineral density, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, cortisol, cytokines, leptin, antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, smoking, alcohol, physical activity and diet. Reference lists of chosen articles were further reviewed for associated publications.
The possible association between psychiatric illness, in particular depression, and osteoporosis has been the subject of a growing body of research yielding various findings, although most identify some effect on bone. In addition to medication-related processes and/or modifiable lifestyle factors associated with mood disturbances, endocrine and immune alteration secondary to depression may play a pathogenetic role in bone metabolism.
Additional longitudinal studies, with the advantage of temporal sequencing, remain to be conducted, as well as research into potential mechanisms surrounding the association. Nevertheless, the current findings are of clinical relevance, given the health burden of both depression and osteoporosis.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Antidepressants may increase the risk of fractures by disrupting sensory-motor function, thereby increasing the risk of falls, and by decreasing bone mineral density and consequently increasing the fall- or impact-related risk of fracture. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants appear to increase fracture risk relative to no treatment, while less is known about the effect of serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) antidepressants, despite SNRIs being prescribed with increasing frequency. No prior study has directly examined how fracture risk differs among patients initiating SNRIs versus those initiating SSRIs. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of SNRI versus SSRI initiation on fracture rates. Data were derived from a PharMetrics claims database, 1998-2010, which is comprised of commercial health plan information obtained from managed care plans throughout the US. We constructed a cohort of patients aged 50 years or older initiating either of the two drug classes (SSRI, N = 335,146; SNRI, N = 61,612). Standardized mortality weighting and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for fractures by antidepressant class. In weighted analyses, the fracture rates were approximately equal in SNRI and SSRI initiators: HRs for the first 1- and 5-year periods following initiation were 1.11 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.92-1.36] and 1.06 (95 % CI 0.90-1.26), respectively. For the subgroup of patients with depression who initiated on either SNRIs or SSRIs, those initiating SNRIs had a modestly, but not significantly, elevated fracture risk compared with those who initiated on SSRIs [HR 1.31 (95 % CI 0.95-1.79)]. We found no evidence that initiating SNRIs rather than SSRIs materially influenced fracture risk among a cohort of middle-aged and older adults.CNS Drugs 02/2015; 29(3). DOI:10.1007/s40263-015-0231-5 · 4.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Depression has been associated with reduced bone mass in adults, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In addition, little is known about the association between depression and bone health during growth and development. To address this knowledge gap, we examined bone density and structure in 222 adolescents and young adults (69% females, mean ± SD age: 19.0 ± 1.5 years), enrolled within one month of starting a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) or unmedicated. Psychiatric functioning was assessed with self-report and researcher-administered instruments, including the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation for Adolescents (A-LIFE). Anthropometric and laboratory measures included dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans. Linear multivariable regression analysis tested the association between depression and bone mass, after accounting for relevant confounders. The presence of current depression was associated with a significant reduction in age-sex-height-race-specific bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) of total body less head and lumbar spine. The findings varied by assessment method with self-report scales, capturing symptom severity over the prior week or two, yielding the weakest associations. Depression was also associated with reduced cortical thickness and a trend for increased endosteal circumference. In contrast, generalized anxiety disorder was not associated with bone deficits. In sum, depressive illness is associated with significantly lower bone mass in youths. Future investigations must examine whether bone recovery is possible following depression remission or whether remedial interventions are warranted to optimize bone mass in order to minimize the long-term risk of osteoporosis. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral ResearchJournal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 10/2014; 29(10). DOI:10.1002/jbmr.2249 · 6.59 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To estimate the association between depressive symptoms and physical diseases in Switzerland, as respective findings might inform about future estimates of mental and physical health care costs. A population-based study, using data from the Swiss Health Survey collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews and additional written questionnaires during the year 2007 (n = 18,760) in Switzerland. The multistage stratified random sample included subjects aged 15 years and older, living in a private Swiss household with a telephone connection. Complete data were available for 14,348 subjects (51% of all subjects reached by telephone). Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations between depressive symptoms and any physical disease, or a specific physical disease out of 13 non-communicable physical diseases assessed with a self-report checklist on common physical diseases. Analyses were adjusted for sex, age, education, occupation, and household income. In the adjusted models, depressive symptoms were associated with arthrosis and arthritis [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.28-2.50] and any physical disease (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.33-2.10) after controlling for multiple testing. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the comorbidity of depressive symptoms and arthrosis and arthritis in Switzerland and might have implications for more precise future estimates of mental and physical health care costs.Frontiers in Public Health 01/2015; 3:47. DOI:10.3389/fpubh.2015.00047