cAMP-mediated beta-adrenergic signaling negatively regulates Gq-coupled receptor-mediated fetal gene response in cardiomyocytes.
ABSTRACT The treatment with beta-blockers causes an enhancement of the norepinephrine-induced fetal gene response in cultured cardiomyocytes. Here, we tested whether the activation of cAMP-mediated beta-adrenergic signaling antagonizes alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor (AR)-mediated fetal gene response. To address this question, the fetal gene program, of which atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and the beta-isoform of myosin heavy chain are classical members, was induced by phenylephrine (PE), an alpha(1)-AR agonist. In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, we found that stimulation of beta-ARs with isoproterenol, a beta-AR agonist, inhibited the fetal gene expression induced by PE. Similar results were also observed when cardiomyocytes were treated with forskolin (FSK), a direct activator of adenylyl cyclase, or 8-CPT-6-Phe-cAMP, a selective activator of protein kinase A (PKA). Conversely, the PE-induced fetal gene expression was further upregulated by H89, a selective PKA inhibitor. To evaluate whether these results could be generalized to Gq-mediated signaling and not specifically to alpha(1)-ARs, cardiomyocytes were treated with prostaglandin F(2)alpha, another Gq-coupled receptor agonist, which is able to promote fetal gene expression. This treatment caused an increase of both ANP mRNA and protein levels, which was almost completely abolished by FSK treatment. The capability of beta-adrenergic signaling to regulate the fetal gene expression was also evaluated in vivo conditions by using beta1- and beta2-AR double knockout mice, in which the predominant cardiac beta-AR subtypes are lacking, or by administering isoproterenol (ISO), a beta-AR agonist, at a subpressor dose. A significant increase of the fetal gene expression was found in beta(1)- and beta(2)-AR gene deficient mice. Conversely, we found that ANP, beta-MHC and skACT mRNA levels were significantly decreased in ISO-treated hearts. Collectively, these data indicate that cAMP-mediated beta-adrenergic signaling negatively regulates Gq cascade activation-induced fetal gene expression in cultured cardiomyocytes and that this inhibitory regulation is already operative in the mouse heart under physiological conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Most patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) die from right heart failure. Beta-adrenergic receptor blockade reduces mortality by about 30% in patients with left-sided systolic heart failure, but is not used in PAH. To assess the effect of the adrenergic receptor blocker carvedilol on the pulmonary circulation and right heart in experimental pulmonary hypertension in rats. Angioproliferative pulmonary hypertension was induced in rats by combined exposure to the vascular endothelial growth factor-receptor antagonist SU5416 and hypoxia. Carvedilol treatment was started after establishment of pulmonary hypertension and right heart dysfunction. Measurements and Compared with vehicle-treated animals, treatment with carvedilol resulted in increased exercise endurance; improved right ventricular (RV) function (increased tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and decreased RV dilatation); and an increased cardiac output. The morphology of the pulmonary vessels and the RV afterload were not affected by carvedilol. Carvedilol treatment was associated with enhancement of RV fetal gene reactivation, increased protein kinase G (PKG) activity, and a reduction in capillary rarefaction and fibrosis. Metoprolol had similar but less pronounced effects in the SU5416 and hypoxia model. Cardioprotective effects were noted of both carvedilol and metoprolol in the monocrotaline model. In the case of carvedilol, but not metoprolol, part of these effects resulted from a prevention of monocrotaline-induced lung remodeling. Adrenergic receptor blockade reverses RV remodeling and improves RV function in experimental pulmonary hypertension. Beta-adrenergic receptor blockers are not recommended in humans with PAH before their safety and efficacy are assessed in well-designed clinical trials.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 09/2010; 182(5):652-60. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the influence of sex-hormones on the expression of a- and b-cardiac myosin heavy chain isoforms (a-MHC and b-MHC) in C57bl/6 mice of both sexes, under physiological and pathological conditions. In the left ventricles of fertile female mice, b-MHC expression were 10 fold higher compared to the age-matched males, whereas no differences were found in the a-MHC expression. These differences disappeared after ovariectomy or in sexually immature mice. We also found a sex-related difference in expression of b1-adrenoceptors (b1-AR), since mRNA levels of this gene were 40% lower in fertile females compared to males of the same age, but did not differ in prepuberal or ovariectomized animals. Interestingly, the deletion of both b1- and b2-AR abolished sex difference in the b-MHC expression , since mRNA levels in knockout males were increased and reached values comparable to those of knockout females. Moreover, the b1-AR antagonist metoprolol induced about three-fold increase of b-MHC expression in male mice. The capability of gender to regulate b-MHC expression was also evaluated in the presence of hemodynamic load. Thoracic aortic coarctation (TAC) produced cardiac hypertrophy along with a 12 fold increase of b-MHC and a 50% decrease of b1AR expression in males but not in females, thus abolishing the gender difference observed in sham animals for such genes. In conclusion our results show that the expression of b-MHC and b1-AR in the left ventricles undergo gender-related and correlated changes under both physiological and pathological conditions, and suggest a role of b1-adrenoceptor-mediated signalling.Journal of Endocrinology 11/2012; · 4.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protein kinase D (PKD) targets several proteins in the heart, including cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and class II histone deacetylases, and regulates cardiac contraction and hypertrophy. In adult rat ventricular myocytes (ARVM), PKD activation by endothelin-1 (ET1) occurs via protein kinase Cε and is attenuated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Intracellular compartmentalisation of cAMP, arising from localised activity of distinct cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms, may result in spatially constrained regulation of the PKA activity that inhibits PKD activation. We have investigated the roles of the predominant cardiac PDE isoforms, PDE2, PDE3 and PDE4, in PKA-mediated inhibition of PKD activation. Pretreatment of ARVM with the non-selective PDE inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) attenuated subsequent PKD activation by ET1. However, selective inhibition of PDE2 [by erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine, EHNA], PDE3 (by cilostamide) or PDE4 (by rolipram) individually had no effect on ET1-induced PKD activation. Selective inhibition of individual PDE isoforms also had no effect on the phosphorylation status of the established cardiac PKA substrates phospholamban (PLB; at Ser16) and cTnI (at Ser22/23), which increased markedly with IBMX. Combined administration of cilostamide and rolipram, like IBMX alone, attenuated ET1-induced PKD activation and increased PLB and cTnI phosphorylation, while combined administration of EHNA and cilostamide or EHNA and rolipram was ineffective. Thus, cAMP pools controlled by PDE3 and PDE4, but not PDE2, regulate the PKA activity that inhibits ET1-induced PKD activation. Furthermore, PDE3 and PDE4 play redundant roles in this process, such that inhibition of both isoforms is required to achieve PKA-mediated attenuation of PKD activation.Archiv für Kreislaufforschung 01/2011; 106(1):51-63. · 7.35 Impact Factor