Control of prepotent responses by the superior medial frontal cortex

Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, National Central University, Jhongli 320, Taiwan.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.36). 10/2008; 44(2):537-45. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.09.005
Source: PubMed


The inhibitory control of prepotent action is vital for appropriate behaviour. An example of the importance of such control can be seen in the inhibition of aggressive behavior, deficits in which may have broader consequences for society. Many studies have related lesions or the under-development of the prefrontal cortex to inefficiency of inhibitory control. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation and a stop-signal task, which occasionally requires the inhibition of a prepotent motor response, to investigate the role of pre-supplementary motor area (Pre-SMA) in inhibitory control. While no effects were seen on the ability to generate responses, TMS delivered over the Pre-SMA disrupted the ability to respond to a stop signal. These results are the first to establish a casual link between Pre-SMA and inhibitory control in normal subjects. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms of inhibitory control may lead to clearer understanding of the neural basis of inappropriate behaviour.

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    • "BBR-9774; No. of Pages 9 H.W. Lee et al. / Behavioural Brain Research xxx (2015) xxx–xxx 3 temporary perturbation of neural activity in the two regions. TMS has been shown to impair performance on a stop-signal task as indicated by an elevated SSRT when it was applied over the pre-SMA [10] [37] and over the rIFG [8] [7]. Specifically, we wanted to compare the TMS effect on performance in the high-and low-slowing participants. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although both the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) have been demonstrated to be critical for response inhibition, there is still considerable disagreement over the roles they play in the process. In the present study, we investigated the causal relations of the pre-SMA and the rIFG in a conditional stop-signal task by applying offline theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation. The task introduced a continue condition, which requires the same motor response as in a go trial but captures attention as in a stop trial. We found great individual differences in the amount of slowing on continue trials. Temporary suppression of pre-SMA activity prolonged the continue RT in participants who slowed little in response to continue trials, whereas disruption of the rIFG did not lead to significant changes in performance irrespective of the degree of slowing. Our results contribute to the understanding of the role of the pre-SMA by providing causal evidence that it is involved in response slowing on continue trials during conditional stopping, and it is likely that its efficiency in updating motor planning and reinitiating an inhibited response was associated with the amount of slowing. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Behavioural brain research 08/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.08.024 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    • "This procedure first involved identifying centers of mass based upon peak voxel activations and then confirming that the centers of mass fell within the canonical RIC. A review of the imaging literature on response inhibition processes utilizing similar motor response inhibition tasks identified the right middle and inferior frontal gyri, right inferior parietal lobule, bilateral insula and the midline cingulate and pre-SMA as canonical nodes of the RIC (Chen et al., 2009; Chevrier et al., 2007; Dodds et al., 2011; Fassbender et al., 2009, 2004; Garavan et al., 2006, 2008, 1999; Hampshire et al., 2010; Hester and Garavan, 2004; Kaufman et al., 2003; Konishi et al., 1999; Leung and Cai, 2007; Li et al., 2006; Xue et al., 2008). The peak activations within each of these regions were identified and then served as the centers of 13 mm 3 (2197 voxels) cubic ROIs. "
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    ABSTRACT: A significant hindrance to effective treatment of addiction is the difficulty encountered in identifying those most likely to relapse. Cocaine addiction is characterized by deficits in inhibitory control and elevated reactivity to cocaine cues, both hypothesized to be integral to the development of addiction and propensity to relapse. It follows that reduction of both impulsivity and cue-reactivity following abstinence is protective against relapse, and that persistence of these factors increases vulnerability. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined neural activation patterns in dorsal and ventral striatum in abstinent cocaine dependent (CD) individuals (N=20) and non-using controls (N=19) as they performed a cocaine craving task. We also examined activations in nodes of the response inhibition circuit (RIC) as they performed an inhibition task. At the between-groups level, no differences in RIC or striatal activation were seen in former users, in contrast to previous investigations in current users, suggesting large-scale functional recovery with abstinence. However, at the individual participant-level, abstinent CD individuals displayed an association between cocaine cue-related neural activations in the right ventral striatum and compulsive cocaine craving scores. Compulsive craving scores were also negatively correlated with duration of abstinence. Further, there was an association between motor impulsivity scores and inhibition-related activations in the right inferior frontal gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area in abstinent CD individuals. Thus, while former users as a group did not show deficits in inhibitory function or cocaine-cue reactivity, participant-level results pointed to activation patterns in a minority of these individuals that likely contributes to enduring relapse vulnerability.
    Neuropharmacology 06/2014; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.05.011 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    • "The superior medial frontal cortex has also been shown having an important inhibitory control of prepotent actions. The importance of such control can be seen in the inhibition of aggressive behavior, considering how meaningful for the society might be an ineffi ciency of inhibitory control (Chen et al. 2009 ). Behavioral studies suggested that individuals with high score in the present scale of ZTPI (especially the hedonistic one) show lack of inhibitory control and risky behavior (Boyd and Zimbardo 2005 ; Alvos et al. 1993 ). "

    Time perspective theory: Review, research and application. Essays in Honor of Philip Zimbardo., Edited by M. Stolarski, N. Fieulain, W. Van Beek (Eds, 01/2014: chapter Neural correlates of time perspective; Springer International Publishing.
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