Investigation of EROD, CYP1A immunopositive proteins and SOD in haemocytes of Chamelea gallina and their role in response to B[a]P.
ABSTRACT CYP1A sub-family represents the main form of cytochrome P450 involved in benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) detoxification, but there are no clear evidences about its presence in invertebrates. 7-Ethoxy resorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity is strictly related to CYP1A presence, at the same time P450-dependent oxidative metabolism leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, thought to be an important mechanism of pollutant-mediated toxicity in aquatic organisms. Superoxide dismutases (SODs), EROD and CYP1A activities and/or expressions were detected in haemocytes of pooled clams (Chamelea gallina) and cell-free haemolymph after 24 h, 7 and 12 days of exposure to 0.5 mg/L of B[a]P. After 24 h, B[a]P content was maximum in whole tissues. A 61 kDa band was recognized in haemocytes and cell-free haemolymph by polyclonal anti-fish CYP1A, while 53.5 and 63.8 kDa CYP1A immunopositive proteins were discriminate without differences of expression. Differently, EROD, MnSOD activity/expression and ECSOD expression decreased in haemocytes and haemolymph. C. gallina immune system presents an interesting response dose/time exposure of B[a]P and the 7 days condition highlights the major effects of xenobiotic action. The identification of basal EROD levels supports the possible presence of the CYP1A, never identified in C. gallina and more specifically never isolated in immune cells, as confirmed by CYP1A-immunopositive proteins identification.
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ABSTRACT: The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, which uses the copper-dependent protein haemocyanin for oxygen transport, lacks the ubiquitous cytosolic copper-dependent enzyme copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,ZnSOD) as evidenced by undetectable levels of Cu,ZnSOD activity, protein and mRNA in the hepatopancreas (the site of haemocyanin synthesis) and gills. Instead, the crab has an unusual cytosolic manganese SOD (cytMnSOD), which is retained in the cytosol, because it lacks a mitochondrial transit peptide. A second familiar MnSOD is present in the mitochondria (mtMnSOD). This unique phenomenon occurs in all Crustacea that use haemocyanin for oxygen transport. Molecular phylogeny analysis suggests the MnSOD gene duplication is as old as the origin of the arthropod phylum. cytMnSOD activity in the hepatopancreas changes during the moulting cycle of the crab. Activity is high in intermoult crabs and non-detectable in postmoult papershell crabs. mtMnSOD is present in all stages of the moulting cycle. Despite the lack of cytCu,ZnSOD, crabs have an extracellular Cu,ZnSOD (ecCu,ZnSOD) that is produced by haemocytes, and is part of a large, approx. 160 kDa, covalently-linked protein complex. ecCu,ZnSOD is absent from the hepatopancreas of intermoult crabs, but appears in this tissue at premoult. However, no ecCu,ZnSOD mRNA can be detected, suggesting that the protein is recruited from the haemolymph. Screening of different taxa of the arthropod phylum for Cu,ZnSOD activity shows that those crustaceans that use haemoglobin for oxygen transport have retained cytCu,ZnSOD. It appears, therefore, that the replacement of cytCu,ZnSOD with cytMnSOD is part of an adaptive response to the dynamic, haemocyanin-linked, fluctuations in copper metabolism that occur during the moulting cycle of the crab.Biochemical Journal 09/2003; 374(Pt 1):219-28. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purification of cytochrome P450 from liver microsomes of untreated juvenile male rainbow trout yielded five fractions designated LMC1 to LMC5. All fractions, except LMC4 and LMC5, appeared homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and showed minimum molecular weights of 50,000 (LMC1), 54,000 (LMC2), 56,000 (LMC3), 58,000 (LMC4), and 59,000 (LMC5). Specific contents ranged from 2.8 (LMC3) to 14.9 (LMC5) nmol heme/mg protein. The catalytic activity of LMC1, LMC2, and LMC5 toward various substrates was examined. LMC2 exhibited the highest estradiol 2-hydroxylase activity and progesterone 16 alpha-hydroxylase activity. LMC2 also was most active in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In contrast, LMC5 was most active in catalyzing the 6 beta- and 16 beta-hydroxylation of testosterone and the 6 beta-hydroxylation of progesterone. LMC1 showed the highest lauric acid hydroxylase activity. The three isozymes tested had low activity (for LMC2 and LMC5) or no activity (for LMC1) toward benzphetamine or benzo[a]pyrene. Polyclonal antibodies to all five isozymes were raised in rabbits and the antibodies were used to examine the contribution of the P450s to microsomal enzyme activities. The results of microsomal enzyme inhibition studies with polyclonal antibodies showed that anti-LMC2 IgG significantly inhibited the oxidative metabolism of testosterone, lauric acid, AFB1, and benzphetamine. Anti-LMC5 IgG inhibited the oxidation of progesterone, estradiol, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzphetamine. Anti-LMC1 IgG slightly inhibited the microsomal hydroxylation of lauric acid. Anti-LMC3 and anti-LMC4 IgG did not inhibit any of the measured microsomal enzyme activities. These findings suggest that individual constitutive isozymes of trout cytochrome P450 have well-defined contributions to the microsomal metabolism of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 02/1989; 268(1):227-38. · 3.37 Impact Factor
- 07/2009; 58(4):725-725.