Investigation of EROD, CYP1A immunopositive proteins and SOD in haemocytes of Chamelea gallina and their role in response to B[a]P.
ABSTRACT CYP1A sub-family represents the main form of cytochrome P450 involved in benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) detoxification, but there are no clear evidences about its presence in invertebrates. 7-Ethoxy resorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity is strictly related to CYP1A presence, at the same time P450-dependent oxidative metabolism leads to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, thought to be an important mechanism of pollutant-mediated toxicity in aquatic organisms. Superoxide dismutases (SODs), EROD and CYP1A activities and/or expressions were detected in haemocytes of pooled clams (Chamelea gallina) and cell-free haemolymph after 24 h, 7 and 12 days of exposure to 0.5 mg/L of B[a]P. After 24 h, B[a]P content was maximum in whole tissues. A 61 kDa band was recognized in haemocytes and cell-free haemolymph by polyclonal anti-fish CYP1A, while 53.5 and 63.8 kDa CYP1A immunopositive proteins were discriminate without differences of expression. Differently, EROD, MnSOD activity/expression and ECSOD expression decreased in haemocytes and haemolymph. C. gallina immune system presents an interesting response dose/time exposure of B[a]P and the 7 days condition highlights the major effects of xenobiotic action. The identification of basal EROD levels supports the possible presence of the CYP1A, never identified in C. gallina and more specifically never isolated in immune cells, as confirmed by CYP1A-immunopositive proteins identification.
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ABSTRACT: Selenium binding proteins (SeBPs) play a crucial role in controlling the oxidation/reduction in many physiological processes. Here we reported the isolation and characterization of a cDNA of SeBP gene from Sinonovacula constricta (denoted as ScSeBP). The full-length cDNA of ScSeBP was of 2345 bp, consisting of a 5'UTR of 246 bp, a 3'UTR of 626 bp, and a complete ORF of 1473 bp encoding a polypeptide with 491 amino acid residues. The predicted molecular mass of deduced amino acid of ScSeBP was 54.85 kDa and the theoretical pI was 6.44. Tissue distribution analysis of the ScSeBP revealed that the mRNA transcripts of ScSeBP were constitutively expressed in all examined tissues with the higher expressions in gill, gonad and the haemocytes. The temporal expression of ScSeBP in gill and haemocytes after B[α]P and heavy metals exposure were recorded by qPCR. B[α]P exposure at 0.5 and 5 mg L(-1) caused significant increase in mRNA expression of ScSeBP in haemocytes, but down-regulated ScSeBP mRNA expression in gill. Concerning heavy metals stresses, the suppressed expression patterns were detected in gill and haemocyte except lower concentration of PbCl2 exposure in haemocytes at 12 h. All our results indicated that ScSeBP was one of key effectors in mediating B[α]P and heavy metals exposure.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 05/2013; · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Various sequencing projects over the last several years have aided the discovery of previously uncharacterized invertebrate sequences, including new cytochrome P450 genes (CYPs). Here we present data on the identification and characterization of two CYP1-like and three CYP3-like genes from the bivalve mollusk Mytilus edulis, and assess their potential as biomarkers based on their responses to several known vertebrate aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure CYP transcript levels in digestive gland, labial palps, adductor muscle, gill, foot, and different regions of the mantle. Levels of both CYP1-like genes were highest in digestive gland, whereas labial palps had the highest expression levels of the three CYP3-like genes followed by digestive gland and outer margin of the mantle. Mussels were exposed by injection to the AHR agonists, β-naphthoflavone (BNF; 25μgg(-1)), 3,3',4,4',5-polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB126; 2μgg(-1)), or 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ; 0.1μgg(-1)), or to Aroclor 1254 (a mixture of PCBs; 50μgg(-1)) for 24h, followed by CYP expression analysis. There was no statistically significant change in expression of either of the CYP1-like genes after exposure to the various AHR agonists. The CYP3-like-1 gene was significantly up-regulated by BNF in gill tissues and the CYP3-like-2 gene was up-regulated in digestive gland by PCB126 and in gill tissue by BNF. These results suggest that distinct mechanisms of CYP gene activation could be present in M. edulis, although the importance of the CYP1-like and CYP3-like genes for xenobiotic and endogenous lipids biotransformation requires additional investigation.Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 11/2012; 128-129C:101-112. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bivalve molluscs, such as Venerupis philippinarum, are often used as bioindicators of environmental pollution since they can bioaccumulate a large variety of pollutants because of their filter feeding. The Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) is an important contaminant, commonly present in the marine environment. Pollutants are generally metabolized by enzymes of phase I, mainly CYPs enzymes, and by conjugation enzymes of phase II like GST. In this study, we investigated by Real Time PCR the expression of CYP4 and GSTr (GST class rho) in the digestive gland of V. philippinarum exposed to different concentrations of B(a)P for 24 h and after a 24 h depuration period. Accumulation of B(a)P by clams has been confirmed by the HPLC-FLD analyses. Moreover, HPLC-FLD analyses evidenced that after depuration, B(a)P concentrations decreased in animals subjected to 0.03 mg/l and 0.5 mg/l exposures but did not decrease in animals subjected to 1 mg/l exposure. B(a)P exposure and depuration did not cause histopathological lesions in the different organs. The analysis of GSTr expression in the digestive gland showed a significant increase in mRNA in animals subjected to 1 mg/l exposure, whereas the analysis of CYP4 expression did not evidence differences among treatments. Moreover, the expression of both genes did not exhibit any differences after the purification treatment. The results demonstrate that B(a)P significantly affects the expression of GSTr mRNA in the digestive gland of V. philippinarum and suggest that GSTr gene could play an important role in the biotransformation of B(a)P.Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger: official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft 01/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor