2008 focused update incorporated into the ACC/AHA 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to revise the 1998 guidelines for the management of patients with valvular heart disease). Endorsed by the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 15.34). 10/2008; 52(13):e1-142. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2008.05.007
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to characterize health status outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with a self-expanding bioprosthesis among patients at extreme surgical risk and to identify pre-procedural patient characteristics associated with a poor outcome. For many patients considering TAVR, improvement in quality of life may be of even greater importance than prolonged survival. Patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis who were considered to be at prohibitive risk for surgical aortic valve replacement were enrolled in the single-arm CoreValve U.S. Extreme Risk Study. Health status was assessed at baseline and at 1, 6, and 12 months after TAVR using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), the Short Form-12, and the EuroQol-5D. The overall summary scale of the KCCQ (range 0 to 100; higher scores = better health) was the primary health status outcome. A poor outcome after TAVR was defined as death, a KCCQ overall summary score (OS) <45, or a decline in KCCQ-OS of 10 points at 6-month follow-up. A total of 471 patients underwent TAVR via the transfemoral approach, of whom 436 (93%) completed the baseline health status survey. All health status measures demonstrated considerable impairment at baseline. After TAVR, there was substantial improvement in both disease-specific and generic health status measures, with an increase in the KCCQ-OS of 23.9 points (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.3 to 27.5 points) at 1 month, 27.4 points (95% CI: 24.2 to 30.6 points) at 6 months, 27.4 points (95% CI: 24.1 to 30.8 points) at 12 months, along with substantial increases in Short Form-12 scores and EuroQol-5D utilities (all p < 0.003 compared with baseline). Nonetheless, 39% of patients had a poor outcome after TAVR. Baseline factors independently associated with poor outcome included wheelchair dependency, lower mean aortic valve gradient, prior coronary artery bypass grafting, oxygen dependency, very high predicted mortality with surgical aortic valve replacement, and low serum albumin. Among patients with severe aortic stenosis, TAVR with a self-expanding bioprosthesis resulted in substantial improvements in both disease-specific and generic health-related quality of life, but there remained a large minority of patients who died or had very poor quality of life despite TAVR. Predictive models based on a combination of clinical factors as well as disability and frailty may provide insight into the optimal patient population for whom TAVR is beneficial. (Safety and Efficacy Study of the Medtronic CoreValve® System in the Treatment of Symptomatic Severe Aortic Stenosis in High Risk and Very High Risk Subjects Who Need Aortic Valve Replacement; NCT01240902). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    JACC Cardiovascular Interventions 02/2015; 8(2):315-23. DOI:10.1016/j.jcin.2014.08.016 · 7.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To characterize and directly quantify regurgitant jets of left atrioventricular valve (LAVV) in patients with corrected atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) by four-dimensional (4D)Flow Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR), streamline visualization and retrospective valve tracking. Medical ethical committee approval and informed consent from all patients or their parents were obtained. In 32 corrected AVSD patients (age 26 ± 12 years), echocardiography and whole-heart 4DFlow CMR were performed. Using streamline visualization on 2- and 4-chamber views, the angle between regurgitation and annulus was followed throughout systole. On through-plane velocity-encoded images reformatted perpendicular to the regurgitation jet the cross-sectional jet circularity index was assessed and regurgitant volume and fraction were calculated. Correlation and agreement between different techniques was performed with Pearson's r and Spearman's rho correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. In 8 patients, multiple regurgitant jets over the LAVV were identified. Median variation in regurgitant jet angle within patients was 36°(IQR 18-64°) on the 2-chamber and 30°(IQR 20-40°) on the 4-chamber. Regurgitant jets had a circularity index of 0.61 ± 0.16. Quantification of the regurgitation volume was feasible with 4DFlow CMR with excellent correlation between LAVV effective forward flow and aortic flow (r = 0.97, p < 0.001) for internal validation and moderate correlation with planimetry derived regurgitant volume (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and echocardiographic grading (rho = 0.51, p = 0.003). 4DFlow CMR with streamline visualization revealed multiple, dynamic and eccentric regurgitant jets with non-circular cross-sectional shape in patients after AVSD correction. 4DFlow with retrospective valve tracking allows direct and accurate quantification of the regurgitation of these complex jets.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 12/2015; 17(1). DOI:10.1186/s12968-015-0122-4 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beta-blockade is contraindicated in severe aortic regurgitation (AR) due to the fear of prolonging diastole and thus aggravate regurgitation. However, this has never been scientifically proven and positive effects of targeting the sympathetic system in AR has been demonstrated in several studies. Thirty-nine Sprague-Dawley rats with AR were randomized to ten weeks of medical treatment with carvedilol or no treatment. Treatment was initiated either early or late after AR induction. The effect of carvedilol was assessed by serial echocardiography and invasive hemodynamic measurements. AR resulted in eccentric hypertrophy and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. LV remodeling and function as measured by echocardiography was unaffected by treatment. LV dimensions were similar between treated and untreated groups and measures of LV performance (including strain and strain rate) were also unaltered. This result was confirmed by invasive measurements showing maximal and minimal pressure-time development, LV volumes, and LV pressures, to be unaltered by treatment. On the contrary, despite relative bradycardia carvedilol did not reflect any negative impact on the heart. Carvedilol did not improve left ventricular remodeling or function in rats with surgically induced AR. Despite relative bradycardia, we did not find carvedilol to negatively impact the heart, either when treatment was initiated early or late in the course of disease.
    SpringerPlus 01/2015; 4:52. DOI:10.1186/s40064-015-0829-6

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