Subendometrial microvascularization and uterine artery blood flow in IUD-induced side effects (levonorgestrel intrauterine system and copper intrauterine device)

Programa de Pós-graduação em Medicina: Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, 90035-003 UFRGS, Brazil.
Contraception (Impact Factor: 2.93). 11/2008; 78(4):324-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.contraception.2008.06.013
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A better understanding of the uterine and endometrial vascularization in intrauterine device (IUD)-induced side effects is clearly of paramount importance in terms of both physiological and pathophysiological changes and may permit assessment for future therapeutic treatments. The aim of the study was to quantify the subendometrial microvascularization and uterine artery blood flow in IUD-induced side effects using power Doppler analysis as well as pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) in the exact midluteal phase 3 months after IUD insertion. There were 27 patients using the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and 25 patients using TCu 380A.
This study has a prospective clinical trial design.
There is an increased subendometrial blood flow in patients with severe dysmenorrhea and/or bleeding, after controlling for IUD type, age and parity. Moreover, the PI and RI were not different in such women.
The results provide new data on the bleeding patterns related to these IUD types that may be relevant during contraception use. This method could be used as a prognostic factor to better evaluate women for the risk of developing dysmenorrhea and/or bleeding after IUD insertion.

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    ABSTRACT: Objective. Evaluate if different bleeding patterns associated with the use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) are associated with different uterine and endometrial vascularization patterns, as evidenced by ultrasound power Doppler analysis. Methodology. A longitudinal study, with each subject acting as its own control was conducted between January 2010 and December 2012. Healthy volunteers with a history of heavy but cyclic and regular menstrual cycles were enrolled in the study. Ultrasonographic examination was performed before and after six months of LNG-IUS placement: uterine volume, endometrial thickness, and subendometrial and myometrial Doppler blood flow patterns have been evaluated. Results. A total of 32 women were enrolled out of 186 initially screened. At six months of follow-up, all subjects showed a reduction in menstrual blood loss; for analysis, they were retrospectively divided into 3 groups: normal cycling women (Group I), amenorrheic women (Group II), and women with prolonged bleedings (Group III). Intergroup analysis documented a statistically significant difference in endometrial thickness among the three groups; in addition, mean pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) in the spiral arteries were significantly lower in Group I and Group III compared to Group II. This difference persisted also when comparing-within subjects of Group III-mean PI and RI mean values before and after insertion. Conclusions. The LNG-IUS not only altered endometrial thickness, but-in women with prolonged bleedings-also significantly changed uterine artery blood flow. Further studies are needed to confirm these results and enable gynecologists to properly counsel women, improving initial continuation rates.
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