The effect of stress-inducible extracellular Hsp72 on human neutrophil chemotaxis: a role during acute intense exercise.
ABSTRACT We studied the physiological role of the 72 kDa extracellular heat shock protein (Hsp72, a stress-inducible protein) in modulating neutrophil chemotaxis during a single bout of intense exercise performed by sedentary women, together with various cell mechanisms potentially involved in the modulation. For each volunteer, we evaluated neutrophil chemotaxis and serum Hsp72 concentration before and immediately after a single bout of exercise (1 h on a cycle ergometer at 70% VO(2) max), and 24 h later. Both parameters were found to be stimulated by the exercise, and had returned to basal values 24 h later. In vitro, there was a dose-dependent increase in chemotaxis when neutrophils were incubated both with physiological Hsp72 concentrations and with a 100 x greater concentration. The chemotaxis was greater when the neutrophils were incubated with the post-exercise Hsp72 concentration than with the basal concentration, suggesting a physiological role for this protein in the context of the stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis by intense exercise. The 100 x Hsp72 concentration stimulated chemotaxis even more strongly. In addition, Hsp72 was found to have chemoattractant and chemokinetic effects on the neutrophils at physiological concentrations, with these effects being significantly greater with the post-exercise than with the basal Hsp72 concentration. The Hsp72-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis disappeared when the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) was blocked, and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) were also found to be involved in the signaling process. No changes were observed, however, in neutrophil intracellular calcium levels in response to Hsp72. In conclusion, physiological concentrations of the stress protein Hsp72 stimulate human neutrophil chemotaxis through TLR-2 with its cofactor CD14, involving ERK, NF-kappaB, and PI3K, but not iCa(2 + ), as intracellular messengers. In addition, Hsp72 seems to participate in the stimulation of chemotaxis induced by a single bout of intense exercise performed by sedentary women.
SourceAvailable from: Mauricio KrauseMediators of Inflammation 02/2015; DOI:10.1155/2015/249205 · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Expression of intracellular HSP70 is associated with cytoprotective effects against a wide range of stressful stimuli, such as inflammation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, endotoxins, infections, and fever. This cytoprotective effect is mainly attributed to their ability to stabilize protein structures through chaperone-like reversible interactions. HSP70 was recently detected in the extracellular medium, and its presence in serum is commonly associated with pathological situations, where it exerts modulatory effects on cells of the immune system. Previously, we have described the relationship between serum HSP70 levels, oxidant status, and clinical outcome of septic patients; the group of patients with higher prooxidant status and higher serum HSP70 had also higher mortality. To investigate the possible association between oxidized HSP70 and cytoprotection or cell death, we incubated RAW 264.7 macrophages with oxidized HSP70 and evaluated nitrite production, cell proliferation, cell viability, TNF-α release, and phagocytic activity. We also evaluated structural modifications caused by oxidation in purified HSP70. Oxidation of HSP70 altered its protein structure; besides, the modulatory effect of oxidized HSP70 on RAW264.7 cells was different from that of native HSP70. Macrophages treated with oxidized HSP70 presented lower proliferation and viability, lower phagocytic activity, and lower TNF-α release. These results indicate that oxidation of extracellular HSP70 modified its signaling properties, causing alterations on its modulatory effects on macrophage function and viability.Cell Stress and Chaperones 05/2014; 19(6). DOI:10.1007/s12192-014-0516-5 · 2.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that facilitate the proper folding and assembly of nascent polypeptides and assist in the refolding and stabilization of damaged polypeptides. Through these largely intracellular functions, the HSPs maintain homeostasis and assure cell survival. However, a growing body of literature suggests that HSPs have important effects in the extracellular environment as well. Extracellular HSPs are released from damaged or stressed cells and appear to act as local "danger signals" that activate stress response programs in surrounding cells. Importantly, extracellular HSPs have been shown to activate the host innate and adaptive immune response. With this in mind, extracellular HSPs are commonly included in a growing list of a family of proteins known as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) or alarmins, which trigger an immune response to tissue injury, such as may occur with trauma, ischemia-reperfusion injury, oxidative stress, etc. Extracellular HSPs, including Hsp72 (HSPA), Hsp27 (HSPB1), Hsp90 (HSPC), Hsp60 (HSPD), and Chaperonin/Hsp10 (HSPE) are especially attractrive candidates for DAMPs or alarmins which may be particularly relevant in the pathophysiology of the sepsis syndrome.The Open Inflammation Journal 10/2011; 4:49-60. DOI:10.2174/1875041901104010049