Women's Narratives on Quality in Prenatal Care: A Multicultural Perspective
University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA. Qualitative Health Research
(Impact Factor: 2.19).
12/2008; 18(11):1586-98. DOI: 10.1177/1049732308324986
Although significant progress has been made to increase prenatal care access, national organizations concerned with health equity emphasize that eliminating disparities will require greater attention to quality of care, assessed from both the biomedical and patient perspectives. In this study, we examined narratives about pregnancy experiences from low-income primiparous African American, Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and White women who participated in focus groups conducted in 1996. We reanalyzed transcripts from these discussions, extracting passages in which women talked about the content and quality of their prenatal care experiences. Data were mapped to four domains reflecting patient-centeredness markers identified in the 2005 U.S. National Healthcare Disparities Report (NHDR). These markers include the extent to which the women perceived that their provider listened carefully, explained things, showed respect, and spent enough time with them. The narratives provided by the study participants suggest a critical and intuitive understanding of the NHDR patient-centeredness markers and some shared understanding across cultural groups. Implications for improving quality and its measurement in prenatal care are discussed.
Available from: Eileen Katherine Hutton
- "The subscales and items in the QPCQ measure components of quality of prenatal care identified by women as important in other qualitative studies [17-19] and an integrative review . Wheatley and colleagues found that markers of quality prenatal care included the extent to which the provider listened carefully, showed respect, explained things, and spent enough time with the woman . The main elements of quality of maternity care services identified in Goberna-Tricas’s study were technical expertise of the health professional, the human dimension of the relationship between the caregiver and the patient (interpersonal skill), and the structural aspects that determine the context in which the health care is provided . "
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Utilization indices exist to measure quantity of prenatal care, but currently there is no published instrument to assess quality of prenatal care. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire (QPCQ).
Data for this instrument development study were collected in five Canadian cities. Items for the QPCQ were generated through interviews with 40 pregnant women and 40 health care providers and a review of prenatal care guidelines, followed by assessment of content validity and rating of importance of items. The preliminary 100-item QPCQ was administered to 422 postpartum women to conduct item reduction using exploratory factor analysis. The final 46-item version of the QPCQ was then administered to another 422 postpartum women to establish its construct validity, and internal consistency and test-retest reliability.
Exploratory factor analysis reduced the QPCQ to 46 items, factored into 6 subscales, which subsequently were validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Construct validity was also demonstrated using a hypothesis testing approach; there was a significant positive association between women’s ratings of the quality of prenatal care and their satisfaction with care (r = 0.81). Convergent validity was demonstrated by a significant positive correlation (r = 0.63) between the “Support and Respect” subscale of the QPCQ and the “Respectfulness/Emotional Support” subscale of the Prenatal Interpersonal Processes of Care instrument. The overall QPCQ had acceptable internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.96), as did each of the subscales. The test-retest reliability result (Intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.88) indicated stability of the instrument on repeat administration approximately one week later. Temporal stability testing confirmed that women’s ratings of their quality of prenatal care did not change as a result of giving birth or between the early postpartum period and 4 to 6 weeks postpartum.
The QPCQ is a valid and reliable instrument that will be useful in future research as an outcome measure to compare quality of care across geographic regions, populations, and service delivery models, and to assess the relationship between quality of care and maternal and infant health outcomes.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 06/2014; 14(1):188. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-14-188 · 2.19 Impact Factor
- "Pregnant women have the rights to participate in decisions involving their well-beings and what may or may not be done to their bodies. Understanding women’s perspectives and experiences of antenatal care services is particularly critical as engagement of women in care is important for enhancing effectiveness of healthcare delivery, giving users a voice and making antenatal care services more responsive to women’s needs and expectations [14,15]. "
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ABSTRACT: Understanding women's experiences and perspectives of antenatal care services is particularly critical for enhancing effectiveness of services delivery and addressing women's needs and expectations. As part of a comprehensive assessment of the maternity care services in Iraq, this study aimed to explore the views and experiences of antenatal care in a sample of women.
This explorative study was conducted in Erbil governorate, Iraq. Data were collected using Q methodology, a technique for eliciting subjective views and identifying shared patterns among individuals. A sample of 38 women of different educational and socioeconomic statuses were invited to sort a set of 39 statements reflecting different aspects of the available antenatal care services and issues related to their last pregnancies into a distribution on a scale of nine from "disagree most" to "agree most". By-person factor analysis was used to derive latent views through centroid factor extraction and varimax rotation of factors.
Analysis of the participants' Q sorts resulted in identifying four distinct views and experiences of pregnancy and antenatal care services: (i) public maternity services second best: preference for, and ability to afford, private care, (ii) dissatisfaction with public maternity services: poor information sharing and lack of health promotion, (iii) satisfaction with public maternity service but information gaps perceived and (iv) public maternity services second best: preference for private care but unaffordable. The typical characterizations that were associated with each view were highlighted.
This study revealed different patterns of views and experiences of women of pregnancy and antenatal care services and recognized the particular issues related to each pattern. Different patterns and types of problems and concerns related mainly to inadequate provision of information and poor interpersonal communication, poor utilization of public services and a general preference to use private services were identified in the different groups of women.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 01/2014; 14(1):43. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-14-43 · 2.19 Impact Factor
Available from: Sandy Brooks
- "Interestingly, only one of the prenatal care guidelines reviewed explicitly addresses this issue by stating that women should be treated with consideration and respect, and that the relationship between a woman and her care provider should be characterized by mutual respect . Listening, which is an element of providing emotional support, has been highlighted as essential to quality care in other studies [14,30,44]. The value of clinicians who express caring is reinforced by a study that found ratings of antenatal care were higher if care providers were sensitive and understanding and women's concerns were taken seriously . "
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ABSTRACT: Much attention has been given to the adequacy of prenatal care use in promoting healthy outcomes for women and their infants. Adequacy of use takes into account the timing of initiation of prenatal care and the number of visits. However, there is emerging evidence that the quality of prenatal care may be more important than adequacy of use. The purpose of our study was to explore women's and care providers' perspectives of quality prenatal care to inform the development of items for a new instrument, the Quality of Prenatal Care Questionnaire. We report on the derivation of themes resulting from this first step of questionnaire development.
A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 40 pregnant women and 40 prenatal care providers recruited from five urban centres across Canada. Data were analyzed using inductive open and then pattern coding. The final step of analysis used a deductive approach to assign the emergent themes to broader categories reflective of the study's conceptual framework.
The three main categories informed by Donabedian's model of quality health care were structure of care, clinical care processes, and interpersonal care processes. Structure of care themes included access, physical setting, and staff and care provider characteristics. Themes under clinical care processes were health promotion and illness prevention, screening and assessment, information sharing, continuity of care, non-medicalization of pregnancy, and women-centredness. Interpersonal care processes themes were respectful attitude, emotional support, approachable interaction style, and taking time. A recurrent theme woven throughout the data reflected the importance of a meaningful relationship between a woman and her prenatal care provider that was characterized by trust.
While certain aspects of structure of care were identified as being key dimensions of quality prenatal care, clinical and interpersonal care processes emerged as being most essential to quality care. These processes are important as they have a role in mitigating adverse outcomes, promoting involvement of women in their own care, and keeping women engaged in care. The findings suggest key considerations for the planning, delivery, and evaluation of prenatal care. Most notably, care should be woman-centred and embrace shared decision making as an essential element.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 04/2012; 12(1):29. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-12-29 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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