Intraductal approach to the detection of intraductal lesions of the breast
Department of Breast Diseases, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tatemachi Hachioji 1163, Tokyo, 193-0998, Japan.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (Impact Factor: 3.94). 11/2008; 118(1):9-13. DOI: 10.1007/s10549-008-0203-2
Bloody nipple discharge is a clue in the detection of ductal carcinoma of the breast that do not display a mass. Since sensitivity of discharge cytology is not sufficiently high and mammary ductendoscopy (MS) contributes to the diagnosis of intraductal lesions. We set out to determine whether the intraductal approach is effective for detection of ductal carcinoma. We performed 445 MS procedure in 323 patients who had nipple discharge but no overt mass. The diagnostic accuracy rates of discharge cytology and intraductal breast biopsy (IDBB) were studied in detecting malignancy. The therapeutic value of IDBB for intraductal papillomas was studied in 73 patients. Out of 323 patients, 80 had breast cancer and 155 had intraductal papilloma. MS detected intraductal tumors in 47 cases (58.8%). IDBB was performed in 35 of these 47 cases. The sensitivity was 37.1% by touch cytology, 68.6% by IDBB, and 82.8% by directed ductal lavage cytology. Of the 73 intraductal papilloma patients who were followed for more than 3 years, the therapeutic effectiveness of IDBB was recognized in 57 (78.1%). Directed ductal lavage cytology was the most sensitive method in detecting malignancy. MS and IDBB were benefit in the treatment of intraductal papilloma.
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ABSTRACT: The concept of an intraductal approach to evaluate the breast microenvironment assumes direct access to the cancer-containing duct. Central duct access to the cancer-affected lobe is essential if cytology or cell markers are to be useful indicators of pre-malignant change. Access to the cancer-bearing lobe would be less important if field change effects of malignant change were predominantly supra-lobar. The aim of this study was to determine how often duct lavage fluid drains the breast cancer-affected segment. 58 patients undergoing mastectomy for breast cancer were recruited among which 47 had at least one fluid-yielding duct. Following duct lavage, fluid-yielding ducts were perfused ex vivo with Polyurethane Elastomer (PU4ii) resin. Specimens were sliced sagittally, and the extent of resin perfusion and anatomical relationship to the cancer-affected segment was recorded. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was performed on selected mastectomies before cut-up for a feasibility study of 3D duct reconstruction. The median number of fluid-yielding ducts cannulated per cancer-affected breast was 2 (range 1-4). 35/47 (74%) mastectomy specimens were successfully cannulated for resin perfusion. 29/35 (83%) showed tracing of the cancer-affected duct system, 6/35 resin perfusions traced duct systems unaffected by cancer and 12/35 perfusions extravasated. The proportion of sagittal breast slices perfused by resin was 13-68% (median 43%). Volume rendering CT showed it is feasible to produce a simulated image of the perfused ducts. Duct access to the cancer-containing segment is feasible in the majority of patients. Fluid-yielding ducts proportionately drain a significant volume of the breast. Large symptomatic cancers may cause obstruction with distal collapse. Further quantitative study of breast perfusion CT scans may be helpful for estimating the volume fraction of breast tissue perfused by fluid-yielding ducts. The intraductal approach is a valid concept for biomarker assessment of cancer-containing breast segments.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 06/2011; 132(2):555-64. DOI:10.1007/s10549-011-1623-y · 3.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Today, in cases of nipple discharge of unclear origin, the abundance of diagnostic procedures - a, diagnostic dilemma' - becomes apparent, because unequivocal indications and a current, standardized examination sequence are presently not available. The diagnostic workup of patients with nipple discharge usually includes the clinical history, physical examination, mammography, ultrasonography, galactography, and nipple discharge cytology, but not ductoscopy. In this review we analyze and discuss the possible role of ductoscopy in evaluating intraductal pathologies and its combined use with diagnostic imaging modalities. For this purpose, we reviewed and compared the results of the radiological, pathological, and surgical studies independently. Currently, there is no solitary accurate modality to reach our definitive purpose. Being aware of the capability of each diagnostic modality may take us closer to our target. Therefore, adjunct and appropriate use of multiple imaging modalities and ductoscopy is necessary to evaluate patients with nipple discharge.Breast Care 10/2013; 8(5):348-354. DOI:10.1159/000355833 · 0.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aim: About 1/10 of the patients apply to breast clinics with the complaint of nipple discharge (ND). Surgery is the most frequently preferred treatment method in case of suspicious ND. The contribution of ductoscopy to identify the patients who are candidates for surgery was evaluated and its role to limit the surgery was assessed. Methods: From November 2005 to December 2010 430 patients with ND were assessed by 456 ductoscopic investigations and the results were analyzed. Complete ductoscopic evaluation was achieved in 84% of cases and 28 patients were offered surgery but did not accept (N.=355). Patients with bloody or serous discharges from a single duct were investigated by ductoscopy under local anesthesia as an office procedure. The patients were grouped according to discharge characteristics and the ductoscopic diagnoses. Results: A total of 223 patients had all three criteria of pathologic ND (PND: single duct, spontaneous and bloody/serous discharge). Twenty-two potential neoplastic or malignant lesion (PNML) and 79 papillomatous lesion (solitary or multiple papilloma) were identified. In 132 patients with just two of the PND criteria, 5 PNML and 18 papillomatous lesions were identified. Twenty-three patients with solitary papilloma that were removed by ductoscopic papillomectomy (DP) are followed up without surgery. Conclusion: Ductoscopy helped to identify the patients who required surgical treatment and decreased the number of operations. DP was successfully performed in select group of patients who otherwise would have required surgical resection. Patients with normal ductoscopy findings and patients who were treated with DP successfully can be followed up without the need of surgery.Minerva chirurgica 04/2014; 69(2):65-73. · 0.68 Impact Factor
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