In vitro cytotoxicity of polyphosphoester as a novel injectable alveolar replacement material.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of polyphosphoester polymer used as a novel injectable alveolar bone substitutes for controlled delivery of tetracycline. Cell culture medium was exposed to the polymer (0.01-10 mg/mL) for 24 h. The L-929 mouse fibroblasts were then exposed to the treated cell culture medium for 24 h. Finally, cell viability and growth were assessed by using MTT assay and Alamar Blue assay. No significant cytotoxicity of the polyphosphoester against L-929 mouse fibroblasts was observed at a concentration up to 10 mg/mL (P>0.05). The two evaluation methods showed no significant differences (P>0.05). This study suggests that polyphosphoester does not demonstrate any significant toxic effects to cells in vitro and has the potential to be used both as a medical device and as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications.
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ABSTRACT: A one-step non-radioactive assay to determine the proliferation of murine lymphocytes, lymphoid tumor cells and hybridoma cells is described. This assay requires the addition of Alamar Blue dye to cell cultures and the degree of change in its color, which is reflective of the extent of cellular proliferation, can be determined by an ELISA plate reader. Alamar Blue must be added during the initial phase of cell culture. The pattern of concanavalin A (ConA) or anti-CD3 antibody-induced proliferative response of murine lymphocytes as assessed by Alamar Blue was similar to that of a [3H]thymidine assay. Similarly, the spontaneous proliferation curve of anti-CD3 antibody secreting cell line (YCD3-1), monocytic macrophage cell lines (PU5-1.8, P388D1, J774.1) and myeloma cells (Sp2/0) as determined by Alamar Blue closely resembled that of the [3H]thymidine assay. The minimum detectable number of proliferating cells was comparable in Alamar Blue and [3H]thymidine assays. Since cell lysis/extraction and washing procedures are not involved in the Alamar Blue assay, this approach has several distinct advantages over currently available assays (eg. [3H]thymidine). First, it allows daily monitoring of proliferation without compromising the sterility of cultures. An indication of proliferation can be evaluated (spectrophotometrically or visually) as early as 24 h after ConA stimulation. Second, unlike previously reported assays, Alamar Blue permits further analysis of proliferating cells by other methods. Analysis of cells in culture with Alamar Blue for various surface antigens (CD44, CD45RB, CD4, heat stable antigen) by flow cytometry revealed that the fluorescent profile and relative percentage of cells in cultures with the Alamar Blue were comparable to those without this reagent. The salient advantages of Alamar Blue assay over the [3H]thymidine assay include: (i) non-radioactivity; (ii) simplicity; (iii) less costly; (iv) non-labor intensive; (v) rapidity of assessment of proliferation of large number of samples; (vi) non-toxicity; (vii) usefulness in determining the kinetics of cell growth of hybridomas; and (viii) non-interference of secretion of antibodies by a hybridoma cell line.Journal of Immunological Methods 05/1994; 170(2):211-24. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility of poly(propylene fumarate-co-ethylene glycol) [P(PF-co-EG)] hydrogels were assessed in order to investigate the influence of poly(ethylene glycol) molecular weight and copolymer composition. These materials have application as injectable cardiovascular implants; cytotoxicity due to leachable products, as well as inflammation caused by the biomaterial itself, may ultimately affect the biocompatibility of the implant. We utilized a 7-day in vitro cytotoxicity assay to quantify cell density and cellular proliferation in the presence of copolymer films. The copolymer films exhibited slight to moderate cytotoxicity toward cultured endothelial cells, showing 20-86% viability relative to controls. Cell viability increased with an increasing weight percent of PEG or, to a lesser extent, the molecular weight of PEG. In vivo biocompatibility was assessed using a cage implantation model over a 21-day time period. This system was used to characterize the local cellular and humoral inflammatory response in the surrounding exudate, as well as the size and density of macrophages adherent to the material itself. All copolymer formulations exhibited excellent biocompatibility relative to controls with no significant differences in total leukocyte count among the different formulations. The in vivo inflammatory reaction displayed normal wound healing over 21 days as shown by a progressive decrease in both leukocyte concentration and enzymatic activity. The surface coverage of the copolymer films remained relatively constant from 7 to 21 days. There were no cells larger than 0.003 mm2, which was previously shown to be the threshold value for foreign-body giant cells. These data suggest that P(PF-co-EG) hydrogels have potential for use as injectable biomaterials.Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 08/1999; 46(1):22-32.
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ABSTRACT: Bioreduction of water-soluble tetrazolium salts (e.g., MTS, XTT, and MTT) to their respective formazans is generally regarded as an indicator of cell "redox activity." The reaction is attributed mainly to mitochondrial enzymes and electron carriers. However, MTT reduction may also be catalyzed by a number of other nonmitochondrial enzymes. The goal of this work was to establish the sites of MTT reduction in intact HepG2 human hepatoma cells in culture. In order to establish the subcellular localization of the sites of reduction of MTT, we imaged the formation of MTT-formazan deposits using backscattered light confocal microscopy. Mitochondria were visualized in viable cells using fluorescent dyes that bind in a manner dependent (JC-1 and TMRE) or independent (NAO) of mitochondrial electric potential. Only 25-45% of MTT-formazan was associated with mitochondria after 25 min of incubation. No more than 25% of the mitochondrial area on images was occupied by MTT-formazan. Mitochondrial fluorescence of TMRE, NAO, and the monomeric form of JC-1 decreased rapidly in cells incubated with MTT. However, the intensity of fluorescence of JC-1 aggregates dropped by less than 30% at the onset of incubation and remained constant as reduction of MTT proceeded further. (1) Most of MTT-formazan deposits are not coincident with mitochondria. (2) Monomeric JC-1, as well as TMRE and NAO, accumulating in mitochondria may be displaced by MTT. Thus, the presence of positively charged organic compounds (like MTT) may distort measurements of mitochondrial transmembrane electric potential, which are based on accumulation of fluorescent dyes.Cytometry 05/2002; 47(4):236-42.