Immunological efficacy of a three-dose schedule of hepatitis A vaccine in HIV-infected adults: HEPAVAC study.
ABSTRACT The immunogenicity of vaccines, including vaccine against hepatitis A virus (HAV), is impaired in patients with HIV infection, requiring revised immunization regimens.
We evaluated the immunological efficacy and safety of a 3-dose schedule of hepatitis A vaccine in HIV-infected adults. HAV-seronegative HIV-infected adults were randomized to receive either 3 doses of 1440 UI of hepatitis A vaccine (HAVRIX; GlaxoSmithKline, Marly le Roi, France) at weeks 0, 4, and 24 (46 patients) or 2 doses 24 weeks apart (49 patients).
At week 28, seroconversion, defined as an anti-HAV antibody >or=20 mIU/mL, occurred in 82.6% and 69.4% of patients in the 3-dose and the 2-dose group, respectively (P = 0.13, intent-to-treat analysis, missing data = nonresponder), and in 88.4% and 72.3% of patients in the 3-dose and the 2-dose group, respectively (P = 0.06, observed analysis). Only 37.9% of patients experienced seroconversion after 1 vaccine dose (intent-to-treat analysis). Anti-HAV antibody geometric mean titers were 323 and 132 mIU/mL in the 3-dose group and 138 and 67 mIU/mL in the 2-dose group, respectively, 28 (P = 0.03) and 72 weeks (P = 0.05) after the first vaccine dose. There were no serious adverse events associated with the vaccine. Multivariate analysis showed no treatment group effect but indicated that absence of tobacco smoking (odds ratio = 2.92, 95% confidence interval: 1.07 to 7.97; P = 0.04) was an independent predictor of response to HAV vaccine.
In HIV-infected adults, immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine is poor. Three doses of vaccine were safe and increased antibody titers.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Vaccination against hepatitis A is an important intervention to prevent disease in HIV-patients. There are insufficient data on the association of the response to hepatitis A vaccine with immunological parameters, including subpopulations of T-cells. We studied HIV-infected adults with CD4 T-cells>200 cells/mm(3) who received two doses of hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix or Vaqta). The counts of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4+T-cells, NK, NK CD8+, NK CD8 - cells, and HIV RNA were measured at the time of first dose administration and one month after the end of the vaccination period. The geometric mean titer of antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) and factors affecting response were evaluated. 113 patients (50 antiretroviral treatment-naïve and 63 treatment-experienced) were enrolled in the study. There was no change in the immunological parameters and in the HIV-RNA post-vaccination, except for a decrease in CD8 and in double positive CD4+CD8+t-cell count. The immune response and geometric mean titer of anti-HAV were similar among treated and naïve patients (78% vs. 76% and 237 mIU/mL vs. 158 mIU/mL). Vaccine response was achieved in 71% of patients with CD4=200-499 cells/mm(3) compared with 80% of participants with CD4 ≥500 cells/mm(3) (p>0.05). Logistic regression revealed that immunological cells tested do not affect response differently in treatment-naïve vs. experienced patients. The only factor affecting response is the CD4 T-cell count at vaccination (OR 1.320; 95% CI 1.052-1.656; p=0.016). Patients with CD4 T-cell count ≥500 cells/mm(3) were 4.3 times more likely to respond to the vaccine than patients with CD4 T-cell count 200-499 cells/mm(3) (p=0.005). In conclusion, successful vaccination is associated with CD4 T-cells. The count of other immune cells or the administration of antiretroviral therapy does not predict response to hepatitis A vaccine in HIV patient with baseline CD4 T-cell>200 cells/mm(3).Viral immunology 09/2013; · 1.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vaccine-induced antibodies may wane more quickly in persons living with HIV than in healthy individuals. Here, we reviewed the literature on vaccines routinely recommended in HIV-infected patients to estimate how seroprotection decreases over time in those who initially responded to immunization. For each study retrieved from the literature, the decrease of seroprotection was modeled with a log binomial generalized linear model, and data were pooled in a meta-analysis in order to provide estimates of seroprotection two and five years after last vaccine administration. Our analyses confirmed that duration of seroprotection was shorter in HIV-infected patients, and that with current guidelines, a substantial proportion of patients would have lost protective antibodies before being proposed a booster. We therefore discuss the implications on the monitoring of antibody levels and timing of revaccination in these patients.Clinical Infectious Diseases 01/2014; · 9.37 Impact Factor
Article: Vaccination in HIV-Infected Adults.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Vaccines are critical components for protecting HIV-infected adults from an increasing number of preventable diseases. However, missed opportunities for vaccination among HIV-infected persons persist, likely due to concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of vaccines, as well as the changing nature of vaccine guidelines. In addition, the optimal timing of vaccination among HIV-infected adults in regards to HIV stage and receipt of antiretroviral therapy remain important questions. This article provides a review of the current recommendations regarding vaccines among HIV-infected adults and a comprehensive summary of the evidence-based literature of the benefits and risks of vaccines among this vulnerable population.AIDS patient care and STDs. 07/2014;