Lean Phenotype and Resistance to Diet-Induced Obesity in Vitamin D Receptor Knockout Mice Correlates with Induction of Uncoupling Protein-1 in White Adipose Tissue

GenNYsis Center for Excellence in Cancer Genomics, 122G Cancer Research Center, University at Albany, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA.
Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.64). 10/2008; 150(2):651-61. DOI: 10.1210/en.2008-1118
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Increased adiposity is a feature of aging in both mice and humans, but the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related changes in adipose tissue stores remain unclear. In previous studies, we noted that 18-month-old normocalcemic vitamin D receptor (VDR) knockout (VDRKO) mice exhibited atrophy of the mammary adipose compartment relative to wild-type (WT) littermates, suggesting a role for VDR in adiposity. Here we monitored body fat depots, food intake, metabolic factors, and gene expression in WT and VDRKO mice on the C57BL6 and CD1 genetic backgrounds. Regardless of genetic background, both sc and visceral white adipose tissue depots were smaller in VDRKO mice than WT mice. The lean phenotype of VDRKO mice was associated with reduced serum leptin and compensatory increased food intake. Similar effects on adipose tissue, leptin and food intake were observed in mice lacking Cyp27b1, the 1alpha-hydroxylase enzyme that generates 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), the VDR ligand. Although VDR ablation did not reduce expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma or fatty acid synthase, PCR array screening identified several differentially expressed genes in white adipose tissue from WT and VDRKO mice. Uncoupling protein-1, which mediates dissociation of cellular respiration from energy production, was greater than 25-fold elevated in VDRKO white adipose tissue. Consistent with elevation in uncoupling protein-1, VDRKO mice were resistant to high-fat diet-induced weight gain. Collectively, these studies identify a novel role for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and the VDR in the control of adipocyte metabolism and lipid storage in vivo.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent experimental data seem to suggest a relevant role for 1,25[OH]2cholecalciferol (1,25[OH]2D3) in adipocyte physiology and pathophysiology, with some studies showing adipogenic and pro-inflammatory properties, and others lipolytic and anti-inflammatory functions. Moreover, to our knowledge, the role of cholecalciferol (D3) in adipocytes function is still not known. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effects of 1,25[OH]2D3, as well as of D3, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in basal and inflammatory conditions, testing the effects of different calcium concentrations in adipocytes culture medium. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, CYP27A1 and CYP27B1 mRNA were detected in basal conditions and induced after D3 treatment. Pre-treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes not only with 1,25[OH]2D3, but also with D3 before inflammatory stimulation, significantly prevented the increase in gene expression and protein secretion of IL-6 and TNF- , and significantly increased IL-10 mRNA and protein production compared with adipocytes treated only with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Biological effects of D3 were still present after inhibition of P450 activity with ketokonazole. LPS determined a decrease in cell area compared with controls, paralleled by a significant increase in OD of lipid droplets, whereas 1,25[OH]2D3 and D3 alone significantly increased adipocytes area and decreased OD. Pretreatment with both forms of vitamin D preserved cells from the reduction in their area observed after LPS treatment. LPS decreased more the area of cells grown in a high calcium medium than of adipocytes grown in a low calcium medium. In the presence of a high calcium medium, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment preserved cell area, maintaining its anti-inflammatory and adipogenic properties. In conclusion our results show that D3, besides 1,25[OH]2D3, presentsanti-inflammatory effects on 3T3-L1, as well as that adipocytes have the enzymatic pathways necessary to locally regulate the production of active forms of vitamin D, capable of influencing adipocyte phenotype and function.
    Endocrinology 08/2014; 155(11):en20131969. DOI:10.1210/en.2013-1969 · 4.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Vitamin D endocrine system is functional in the adipose tissue, as demonstrated in vitro, in cultured adipocytes, and in vivo in mutant mice that developed altered lipid metabolism and fat storage in the absence of either 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] or the vitamin D receptor. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of vitamin D and calcium on body adiposity in a diet-induced vitamin D deficient rat model. Vitamin D-deficient rats gained less weight and had lower amounts of visceral fat. Consistent with reduced adipose tissue mass, the vitamin D-deficient rats had low circulating levels of leptin, which reflects body fat stores. Expression of vitamin D and calcium sensing receptors, and that of genes involved in adipogenesis such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, fatty acid synthase and leptin were significantly reduced in white adipose tissue of deficient rats compared to vitamin D-sufficient rats. Furthermore, the expression of uncoupling proteins (Ucp1 and Ucp2) was elevated in the white adipose tissue of the deficient rat indicative of higher energy expenditure, thereby leading to a lean phenotype. Expression of the p160 steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC3), a key regulator of adipogenesis in white adipose tissue was decreased in vitamin D-deficient state. Interestingly, most of the changes observed in vitamin D deficient rats were corrected by calcium supplementation alone. Our data demonstrates that dietary vitamin D and calcium regulate adipose tissue function and metabolism.
    The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 08/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.08.005 · 4.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Orvosi Hetilap 05/2012; 153:5-26. DOI:10.1556/OH.2012.29410


1 Download
Available from