H1 antihistamines increase safety during allergen-specific immunotherapy and might influence the outcome because of immunoregulatory effects.
We sought to analyze the influence of 5 mg of levocetirizine (LC) on the safety, efficacy, and immunologic effects of ultrarush honeybee venom immunotherapy (BVIT).
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study 54 patients with honeybee venom allergy received LC or placebo from 2 days before BVIT to day 21. Side effects during dose increase and systemic allergic reactions (SARs) to a sting challenge after 120 days were analyzed. Allergen-specific immune response was investigated in skin, serum, and allergen-stimulated T-cell cultures.
Side effects were significantly more frequent in patients receiving placebo. Four patients receiving placebo dropped out because of side effects. SARs to the sting challenge occurred in 8 patients (6 in the LC group and 2 in the placebo group). Seven SARs were only cutaneous, and 1 in the placebo group was also respiratory. Difference of SARs caused by the sting challenge was insignificant. Specific IgG levels increased significantly in both groups. Major allergen phospholipase A(2)-stimulated T cells from both groups showed a slightly decreased proliferation. The decrease in IFN-gamma and IL-13 levels with placebo was not prominent with LC, whereas IL-10 levels showed a significant increase in the LC group only. Decreased histamine receptor (HR)1/HR2 ratio in allergen-specific T cells on day 21 in the placebo group was prevented by LC.
LC reduces side effects during dose increase without influencing the efficacy of BVIT. LC modulates the natural course of allergen-specific immune response and affects the expression of HRs and cytokine production by allergen-specific T cells.
"Immunotherapy for hymenoptera venom allergy is highly effective, but associated with frequent and occasionally severe adverse allergic reactions, particularly during the dose escalation phase. Use of antihistamine premedication has been demonstrated to reduce local and systemic reactions during venom immunotherapy, without affecting the efficacy of venom immunotherapy [12,13]. The mechanism is thought to involve alteration in histamine receptor expression on allergen-specific T cells and altered cytokine profiles observed in patients receiving premedication with antihistamines . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has shown promise in inducing desensitization for food allergy. However, there are safety concerns regarding the frequency and severity of adverse events during food OIT.
To evaluate the effect of Ketotifen premedication on adverse reactions during peanut OIT.
A randomized single blind placebo controlled pilot study was performed. Peanut OIT was performed using a previously published protocol. Ketotifen was up-titrated to 2 mg twice daily over two weeks (week -2 to 0), followed by a peanut OIT initial escalation day (day 1). Ketotifen was administered from week 0–4 of peanut OIT; reactions to peanut OIT doses were recorded by clinic staff and subject diary.
Six subjects (median age 10 years, peanut IgE >100kUA/L) were enrolled, 4 randomized to Ketotifen, 2 to placebo. The most common side effect of Ketotifen was fatigue (9% during up-titration). The rate of reaction per peanut OIT dose was lower for subjects on ketotifen (K) compared to placebo (P) during initial escalation on day 1 (K: 22% (8/36) vs. P: 67% (12/18)); week 0–4 build-up doses (K: 75% (3/4) vs. P: 100% (2/2)); and week 0–4 home doses (K: 50% (54/108) vs. P: 82% (27/33)). The rate of gastrointestinal symptoms per peanut OIT dose was also lower for subjects on ketotifen during initial escalation on day 1 (K: 17% (6/36) vs. P: 61% (11/18)); week 0–4 build-up doses (K: 75% (3/4) vs P: 100% (2/2)); and week 0–4 home doses (K: 46% (50/108) vs. P: 82% (27/33)).
Ketotifen premedication is well tolerated and reduces the rate of gastrointestinal symptoms during peanut OIT. These findings require confirmation in a larger study of Ketotifen premedication used throughout peanut OIT.
Clinical Trials number: NCT0162515
"The EAACI Guidelines provide information about pretreatment with epinephrine to prevent anaphylaxis to snake anti-venom [4,123]. Surprisingly, no guidelines provide information about pharmacological prophylaxis of anaphylaxis from subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy, although H1-antihistamine pre-treatment before venom injections during VIT reduces systemic adverse events and has a beneficial immune-modifying effect  (Table 5). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ICON: Anaphylaxis provides a unique perspective on the principal evidence-based anaphylaxis guidelines developed and published independently from 2010 through 2014 by four allergy/immunology organizations. These guidelines concur with regard to the clinical features that indicate a likely diagnosis of anaphylaxis -- a life-threatening generalized or systemic allergic or hypersensitivity reaction.
They also concur about prompt initial treatment with intramuscular injection of epinephrine (adrenaline) in the mid-outer thigh, positioning the patient supine (semi-reclining if dyspneic or vomiting), calling for help, and when indicated, providing supplemental oxygen, intravenous fluid resuscitation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation, along with concomitant monitoring of vital signs and oxygenation. Additionally, they concur that H1-antihistamines, H2-antihistamines, and glucocorticoids are not initial medications of choice.
For self-management of patients at risk of anaphylaxis in community settings, they recommend carrying epinephrine auto-injectors and personalized emergency action plans, as well as follow-up with a physician (ideally an allergy/immunology specialist) to help prevent anaphylaxis recurrences.
ICON: Anaphylaxis describes unmet needs in anaphylaxis, noting that although epinephrine in 1 mg/mL ampules is available worldwide, other essentials, including supplemental oxygen, intravenous fluid resuscitation, and epinephrine auto-injectors are not universally available.
ICON: Anaphylaxis proposes a comprehensive international research agenda that calls for additional prospective studies of anaphylaxis epidemiology, patient risk factors and co-factors, triggers, clinical criteria for diagnosis, randomized controlled trials of therapeutic interventions, and measures to prevent anaphylaxis recurrences. It also calls for facilitation of global collaborations in anaphylaxis research.
In addition to confirming the alignment of major anaphylaxis guidelines, ICON: Anaphylaxis adds value by including summary tables and citing 130 key references. It is published as an information resource about anaphylaxis for worldwide use by healthcare professionals, academics, policy-makers, patients, caregivers, and the public.
World Allergy Organization Journal 05/2014; 7(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1939-4551-7-9
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A coherent optical system for performing an arbitrary linear
transform is described. The system consists of a holographic mask and
two Fourier lenses. A set of equations for determining the
amplitude-phase distribution of the mask is given, and the mask is
generated by combination of a computer-generated hologram and optical
holography. As an example, a Walsh-Hadamard transform of order 32 is
System Sciences, 1989. Vol.I: Architecture Track, Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Hawaii International Conference on; 02/1989
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