Anticoagulants for acute ischaemic stroke
ABSTRACT Most ischaemic strokes are caused by blood clots blocking an artery in the brain. Clot prevention with anticoagulants might improve outcome if bleeding risks were low. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1995, and previously updated in 2004.
To assess the effect of anticoagulant therapy versus control in the early treatment (less than 14 days) of patients with acute ischaemic stroke.
We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 2 October 2007), and two Internet clinical trials registries for relevant ongoing studies (last searched October 2007).
Randomised trials comparing early anticoagulant therapy (started within two weeks of stroke onset) with control in patients with acute presumed or confirmed ischaemic stroke.
Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality, and extracted the data.
Twenty-four trials involving 23,748 participants were included. The quality of the trials varied considerably. The anticoagulants tested were standard unfractionated heparin, low-molecular-weight heparins, heparinoids, oral anticoagulants, and thrombin inhibitors. Based on 11 trials (22,776 participants) there was no evidence that anticoagulant therapy reduced the odds of death from all causes (odds ratio (OR) 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.98 to 1.12) at the end of follow up. Similarly, based on eight trials (22,125 participants), there was no evidence that anticoagulants reduced the odds of being dead or dependent at the end of follow up (OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.93 to 1.04). Although anticoagulant therapy was associated with fewer recurrent ischaemic strokes (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.88), it was also associated with an increase in symptomatic intracranial haemorrhages (OR 2.55; 95% CI 1.95 to 3.33). Similarly, anticoagulants reduced the frequency of pulmonary emboli (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.81), but this benefit was offset by an increase in extracranial haemorrhages (OR 2.99; 95% CI 2.24 to 3.99).
Since the last version of the review, neither of the two new relevant studies have provided additional information to change the conclusions. In patients with acute ischaemic stroke, immediate anticoagulant therapy is not associated with net short or long-term benefit. Treatment with anticoagulants reduced recurrent stroke, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, but increased bleeding risk. The data do not support the routine use of any the currently available anticoagulants in acute ischaemic stroke.
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ABSTRACT: Primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke represents a significant part of stroke management and health care. Although there are official guidelines concerning stroke management, new knowledge are introduced to them with a slight delay. This article provides an overview of current information on primary and secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. It summarizes information especially in the field of cardioembolic stroke, the use of new anticoagulants and the management of carotid stenosis based on the results of recent clinical studies. The optimal approach in stroke management is to follow these recommendations, to know new strategies and to apply an individual personalized approach in our clinical decisions.EPMA Journal, The 06/2014; 5(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1878-5085-5-9
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ABSTRACT: Each year, 1·0–2·0% of individuals with atrial fibrillation and 0·1–0·2% of those with venous thromboembolism who are receiving one of the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban) can be expected to experience an acute ischemic stroke. Additionally, 0·2–0·5% of individuals with atrial fibrillation who are receiving one of the novel oral anticoagulants can be expected to experience an intracranial hemorrhage. This opinion piece addresses the current literature and offers practical approaches to the management of patients receiving novel oral anticoagulants who present with an ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Specifically, we discuss the role of thrombolysis in anticoagulated patients with acute ischemic stroke and factors to consider concerning restarting anticoagulation after acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.International Journal of Stroke 06/2014; 9(5). DOI:10.1111/ijs.12295 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. The use of anticoagulant therapy (ACT) in patients with acute infective endocarditis (IE) remains a controversial issue. Our study attempts to estimate the impact of ACT on the occurrence of embolic complications and the usefulness of ACT in the prevention of embolism in IE patients. Methods. The present authors analyzed 150 patients with left-sided IE. Embolisms including cerebrovascular events (CVE) and the use of ACT were checked at the time of admission and during hospitalization. Results. 57 patients (38.0%) experienced an embolic event. There was no significant difference in the incidence of CVE and in-hospital mortality between patients with and without warfarin use at admission, although warfarin-naïve patients were significantly more likely to have large (>1 cm) and mobile vegetation. In addition, there was no significant difference in the incidence of postadmission embolism and in-hospital death between patients with and without in-hospital ACT. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, ACT at admission was not significantly associated with a lower risk of embolism in patients with IE. Conclusions. The role of ACT in the prevention of embolism was limited in IE patients undergoing antibiotic therapy, although it seems to reduce the embolic potential of septic vegetation before treatment.BioMed Research International 07/2014; 2014:254187. DOI:10.1155/2014/254187 · 2.71 Impact Factor