Control of RpoS in global gene expression of Escherichia coli in minimal media.
ABSTRACT RpoS, an alternative sigma factor, is critical for stress response in Escherichia coli. The RpoS regulon expression has been well characterized in rich media that support fast growth and high growth yields. In contrast, though RpoS levels are high in minimal media, how RpoS functions under such conditions has not been clearly resolved. In this study, we compared the global transcriptional profiles of wild type and an rpoS mutant of E. coli grown in glucose minimal media using microarray analyses. The expression of over 200 genes was altered by loss of RpoS in exponential and stationary phases, with only 48 genes common to both conditions. The nature of the RpoS-controlled regulon in minimal media was substantially different from that expressed in rich media. Specifically, the expression of many genes encoding regulatory factors (e.g., hfq, csrA, and rpoE) and genes in metabolic pathways (e.g., lysA, lysC, and hisD) were regulated by RpoS in minimal media. In early exponential phase, protein levels of RpoS in minimal media were much higher than that in Luria-Bertani media, which may at least partly account for the observed difference in the expression of RpoS-controlled genes. Expression of genes required for flagellar function and chemotaxis was elevated in the rpoS mutant. Western blot analyses show that the flagella sigma factor FliA was expressed much higher in rpoS mutants than in WT in all phase of growth. Consistent with this, the motility of rpoS mutants was enhanced relative to WT. In conclusion, RpoS and its controlled regulators form a complex regulatory network that mediates the expression of a large regulon in minimal media.
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ABSTRACT: Bacterial cells often face hostile environmental conditions, to which they adapt by activation of stress responses. In Escherichia coli, environmental stresses resulting in significant reduction in growth rate stimulate the expression of the rpoS gene, encoding the alternative σ factor σ(S). The σ(S) protein associates with RNA polymerase, and through transcription of genes belonging to the rpoS regulon allows the activation of a 'general stress response', which protects the bacterial cell from harmful environmental conditions. Each step of this process is finely tuned in order to cater to the needs of the bacterial cell: in particular, selective promoter recognition by σ(S) is achieved through small deviations from a common consensus DNA sequence for both σ(S) and the housekeeping σ(70). Recognition of specific DNA elements by σ(S) is integrated with the effects of environmental signals and the interaction with regulatory proteins, in what represents a fascinating example of multifactorial regulation of gene expression. In this report, we discuss the function of the rpoS gene in the general stress response, and review the current knowledge on regulation of rpoS expression and on promoter recognition by σ(S).Environmental Microbiology Reports 02/2014; 6(1):1-13. DOI:10.1111/1758-2229.12112 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mechanisms by which Salmonella establish chronic infections are not well understood. Microbes respond to stress by importing or producing compatible solutes, small molecules that stabilize proteins and lipids. The Salmonella locus opuABCD (also called OpuC) encodes a predicted importer of the compatible solute glycine betaine. Under stress conditions, if glycine betaine cannot be imported, Salmonella enterica produce the disaccharide trehalose, a highly effective compatible solute. We demonstrate that strains lacking opuABCD accumulate more trehalose under stress conditions than wild-type strains. ΔopuABCD mutant strains are more resistant to high-salt, low-pH and -hydrogen peroxide, conditions that mimic aspects of innate immunity, in a trehalose-dependent manner. In addition, ΔopuABCD mutant strains require the trehalose production genes to out-compete wild-type strains in mice and macrophages. These data suggest that in the absence of opuABCD, trehalose accumulation increases bacterial resistance to stress in broth and mice. Thus, opuABCD reduces bacterial colonization via a mechanism that limits trehalose production. Mechanisms by which microbes limit disease may reveal novel pathways as therapeutic targets.Molecular Microbiology 02/2012; 84(2):296-309. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08022.x · 5.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to determine how quorum sensing (QS) affects the production of secondary metabolites in Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23. A phzR mutant (PA23phzR) and an N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-deficient strain (PA23-6863) were generated that no longer inhibited the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in vitro. Both strains exhibited reduced pyrrolnitrin (PRN), phenazine (PHZ) and protease production. Moreover, phzA-lacZ and prnA-lacZ transcription was significantly reduced in PA23phzR and PA23-6863. As the majority of secondary metabolites are produced at the onset of stationary phase, we investigated whether cross-regulation occurs between QS and RpoS. Analysis of transcriptional fusions revealed that RpoS has a positive and negative effect on phzI and phzR, respectively. In a reciprocal manner, RpoS is positively regulated by QS. Characterization of a phzRrpoS double mutant showed reduced antifungal activity as well as PRN and PHZ production, similar to the QS-deficient strains. Furthermore, phzR but not rpoS was able to complement the phzRrpoS double mutant for the aforementioned traits, indicating that the Phz QS system is a central regulator of PA23-mediated antagonism. Finally, we discovered that QS and RpoS have opposing effects on PA23 biofilm formation. While both QS-deficient strains produced little biofilm, the rpoS mutant showed enhanced biofilm production compared with PA23. Collectively, our findings indicate that QS controls diverse aspects of PA23 physiology, including secondary metabolism, RpoS and biofilm formation. As such, QS is expected to play a crucial role in PA23 biocontrol and persistence in the environment.Microbiology 01/2012; 158(Pt 4):896-907. DOI:10.1099/mic.0.054254-0 · 2.84 Impact Factor