Because early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the esophagus is detectable by endoscopic esophageal iodine staining with high accuracy and is easily treated by endoscopic mucosectomy, it is important to develop efficient methods for screening candidates for the endoscopic examination. Inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) is a very strong risk factor for esophageal SCC in alcohol drinkers and thus may be suitable as a screening tool.
To assess the performance of health risk appraisal (HRA) models in screening for esophageal SCC in the Japanese male population.
Two types of HRA models were developed based on our previous case-control study, which included assessment of ALDH2 activity and selected risk factors (HRA-G and HRA-F: activities of ALDH2 assessed by genotype and questionnaire for alcohol flushing, respectively). Each individual's risk of esophageal SCC was calculated quantitatively as a risk score. The sensitivity and specificity of the HRA models at various cutoff values of risk score was estimated by a leave-one-out cross-validation. The positive predictive value was estimated assuming the prevalence of esophageal SCC in the whole population to be 0.17% or 0.39% according to literatures.
When individuals ranked in the top 10% of the HRA-F risk score was screened, the sensitivity was 57.9% and positive predictive value was 0.93% or 2.12% according to the above assumptions, respectively. The sensitivity was slightly better by the HRA-G model than by the HRA-F model.
The HRA models may provide an important approach to early intervention strategies to control esophageal SCC in Japanese men.
"They used a genetic alteration (inactivation of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2; ALDH2) and some risk factors (alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, vegetable and fruit consumption). The results showed that the higher sensitivity and specificity when both genetic changes and risk factors were considered in the model.129 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Esophageal cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer and sixth most frequent cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common type of EC. ESCC develops by progression from premalignant lesions, which are called esophageal squamous dysplasia (ESD). Prevention is the most effective strategy for controlling this disease. Generally, two methods may be defined for ESCC prevention. The aim of the first preventive method is to prevent the initiation of ESD by avoiding the known risk factors, or primary prevention. Secondary prevention focuses on detection of the disease in its early curable stage, thus preventing its progression into advanced stages. Endoscopy with iodine staining and biopsy is the diagnostic choice for ESD. However it is invasive and expensive, and not accepted by asymptomatic ESD cases. Therefore, it is necessary to find a non-endoscopic screening method. Despite the large number of studies conducted worldwide, no approved method has been developed for ESCC screening. Regarding the multi-factorial nature of ESCC, it is proposed that the use of a combination of various criteria, such as cytological examination, risk factors, genetic alteration, and molecular markers may result in the development of a comprehensive and effective ESCC screening program.
Middle East journal of digestive diseases 04/2012; 4(2):111-124.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the performance of our health risk appraisal (HRA) models for screening individuals at high risk of esophageal/pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (EPSCC).
Based on the results of our previous case-control study, we invented HRA models that enable screening for EPSCC cases in Japanese men with high sensitivity and specificity based on either their aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype (HRA-G model) or alcohol flushing (HRA-F model) and drinking, smoking, and dietary habits. Follow-up endoscopy combined with esophageal iodine staining (median follow-up period: 5.0 years) was done on 404 Japanese men (50-78 years) who were registered as cancer-free controls in the previous study.
The follow-up endoscopy resulted in a diagnosis of 6 esophageal SCC (T(is) in 5 and T(1) in 1), 1 hypopharyngeal SCC (T(2)), and 1 oropharyngeal SCC (T(2)). Seven and 6 of the 8 EPSCC cases were in the top 10% risk group at baseline according to the HRA-G and HRA-F models, respectively. The EPSCC detection rates per 100 person-years in the top 10% risk groups by the HRA-G and HRA-F models were 4.38 (95% confidence interval, 1.76-9.01) and 3.48 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-7.58), respectively. Their age-adjusted relative risk was 95.1- and 26.3-fold, respectively (P < 0.0001), higher than in the bottom 90% risk groups.
The high detection rates for EPSCC in the top 10% risk group of this preliminary follow-up study were in good agreement with those predicted by the HRA models and thus encouraged the screening based on our HRA models in larger populations of Japanese men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Philip Brooks and colleagues discuss evidence linking the alcohol flushing response (predominantly due to ALDH2 deficiency) with a much higher risk of esophageal cancer from alcohol consumption.
PLoS Medicine 04/2009; 6(3):e50. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1000050 · 14.43 Impact Factor
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