What is bioinformatics? An introduction and overview

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ABSTRACT A flood of data means that many of the challenges in biology are now challenges in computing. Bioinformatics, the application of computational techniques to analyse the information associated with biomolecules on a large-scale, has now firmly established itself as a discipline in molecular biology, and encompasses a wide range of subject areas from structural biology, genomics to gene expression studies. In this review we provide an introduction and overview of the current state of the field. We discuss the main principles that underpin bioinformatics analyses, look at the types of biological information and databases that are commonly used, and finally examine some of the studies that are being conducted, particularly with reference to transcription regulatory systems. 2. Introduction Biological data are flooding in at an unprecedented rate (1). For example as of August 2000, the GenBank repository of nucleic acid sequences contained 8,214,000 entries (2) and the SWISS-PROT databas...

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    ABSTRACT: With the rise of computers era, a new interdisciplinary science came into existence that unveiled many hidden biological phenomena and contributed hugely in understanding insights of biological molecules. This science is known as bioinformatics, a science having abilities to solve unanswered question of all biological sciences and now bioinformatics has become a leading science in analyzing and predicting the composition of biological molecules and thus has contributed as a prominent part of Human Genome Project. Bioinformatics is actually a combination of Biotechnology and Information Technology along with the other sciences (chemistry, statistics and mathematics) backing it. Bioinformatics has taken biological science especially biotechnology to new horizons by computerizing and organizing their biological data. Among all biological molecules, proteins are thought to be the most complex molecules and tremendous efforts have been done to understand its structure and function. Through bioinformatics, proteins can be explored at three different levels. Firstly, Primary structure which is often the amino acid sequence of protein along with molecular weight, isoelectric point and many other parameters. Secondly, Secondary structure analysis which involves the analysis of substructures in a protein i.e. helices and Beta-plated sheets that are most abundant secondary structural features in a protein, Beta turns and loops that are less abundant and random coils which are the unstructured or unclassifiable substructures. Thirdly, Tertiary structure which is the combination of secondary structure components. In this chapter, we attempted to present bioinformatics approaches at all three levels of proteins as exploring protein at all these levels through bioinformatics tools and databases can provide more insights to protein structure and function leading to understand the many hidden phenomenon of diseases and thus, can contribute hugely in developing new therapeutic regimens.
    Biotechnology Vol. 6: Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, 11/2014: chapter 7: pages 130-142; , ISBN: 1-62699-021-2
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    ABSTRACT: The availability of huge amounts of data resulted in great need of data mining technique in order to generate useful knowledge. In the present study we provide detailed information about data mining techniques with more focus on classification techniques as one important supervised learning technique. We also discuss WEKA software as a tool of choice to perform classification analysis for different kinds of available data. A detailed methodology is provided to facilitate utilizing the software by a wide range of users. The main features of WEKA are 49 data preprocessing tools, 76 classification/regression algorithms, 8 clustering algorithms, 3 algorithms for finding association rules, 15 attribute/subset evaluators plus 10 search algorithms for feature selection. WEKA extracts useful information from data and enables a suitable algorithm for generating an accurate predictive model from it to be identified. Moreover, medical bioinformatics analyses have been performed to illustrate the usage of WEKA in the diagnosis of Leukemia.
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    ABSTRACT: Bioinformatics is the permutation and mishmash of biological science and 4 IT. The discipline covers every computational tools and techniques used to administer, examine and manipulate huge sets of biological statistics. The discipline also helps in creation of databases to store up and supervise biological statistics, improvement of computer algorithms to find out relations in these databases and use of computer tools for the study and understanding of biological information, including 1 DNA, 2 RNA, protein sequences, gene expression profiles, protein structures, and biochemical pathways [1]. The study of this paper implements an integrative solution. As we know that solution to a problem in a specific discipline may be a solution to another problem in a different discipline. For example entropy that has been rented from physical sciences is solution to most of the problems and issues in computer science. Another example is bioinformatics, where computing method and applications are implemented over biological information. This paper shows an initiative step towards that and will discuss upon the needs for integration of multiple discipline and sciences. Similarly green chemistry gives birth to a new kind of computing i.e. green computing. In next versions of this paper we will study biological fuel cell and will discuss to develop a mobile battery that will be life time charged using the concepts of biological fuel cell. Another issue that we are going to discuss in our series is brain tumor detection. This paper is a review on 3 BI i.e. bioinformatics to start with.


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