Inability of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 produced in murine cells to selectively incorporate primer formula.
ABSTRACT Attempts to use the mouse as a model system for studying AIDS are stymied by the multiple blocks to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication that exist in mouse cells at the levels of viral entry, transcription, and Gag assembly and processing. In this report, we describe an additional block in the selective packaging of tRNA(3Lys) into HIV-1 produced in murine cells. HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus (MuLV) use tRNA(3Lys) and tRNA(Pro), respectively, as primers for reverse transcription. Selective packaging of tRNA(3Lys) into HIV-1 produced in human cells is much stronger than that for tRNA(Pro) incorporation into MuLV produced in murine cells, and different packaging mechanisms are used. Thus, both lysyl-tRNA synthetase and GagPol are required for tRNA(3Lys) packaging into HIV-1, but neither prolyl-tRNA synthetase nor GagPol is required for tRNA(Pro) packaging into MuLV. In this report, we show that when HIV-1 is produced in murine cells, the virus switches from an HIV-1-like incorporation of tRNA(3Lys) to an MuLV-like packaging of tRNA(Pro). The primer binding site in viral RNA remains complementary to tRNA(3Lys), resulting in a significant decrease in reverse transcription and infectivity. Reduction in tRNA(3Lys) incorporation occurs even though both murine lysyl-tRNA synthetase and HIV-1 GagPol are packaged into the HIV-1 produced in murine cells. Nevertheless, the murine cell is able to support the select incorporation of tRNA(3Lys) into another retrovirus that uses tRNA(3Lys) as a primer, the mouse mammary tumor virus.
Article: A primer ribonucleic acid for initiation of in vitro Rous sarcarcoma virus deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The nucleotide sequence of an RNA primer molecule for initiation of Rous sarcoma virus DNA synthesis in vitro has been determined. The sequence can be drawn in a cloverleaf structure typical of tRNAs with an anticodon for tryptophan. Aminoacylation of the molecule confirms that it is tRNA-Trp. The same sequence and aminoacylation results are obtained regardless of whether the RNA is isolated from virions or from cells of chickens, the natural host for this virus. It is the only species of tRNA-Trp that is dectected in chicked cell tRNA.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/1975; 250(9):3487-97. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Effect of polymerase mutations on packaging of primer tRNAPro during murine leukemia virus assembly.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The role of reverse transcriptase in selective encapsidation of the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) tRNA primer, tRNAPro, was investigated by examining the tRNA composition of several nonconditional pol mutants. One mutant, clone 23, which contains an altered polymerase about 40% smaller than the wild-type enzyme (B. I. Gerwin et al., J. Virol. 31:741-751, 1979) had a typical viral tRNA pattern, including normal levels of tRNAPro in free and 70S-associated 4S RNA. Another class of mutants, produced by Moloney murine leukemia virus-infected cell clone M13 and subclone M13/1, does not contain any detectable polymerase protein (A. Shields et al., Cell 14:601-609, 1978) and was found to have reduced amounts of tRNAPro in free 4S RNA. However, the level of tRNAPro associated with the genome was normal in the mutant virions. These results suggest that the reverse transcriptase protein is involved in the initial selection of tRNA primer during virus assembly, but not in the subsequent association of this tRNA with genomic RNA.Journal of Virology 05/1981; 38(1):403-8. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: Human chromosome 2 carries a gene required for production of infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) replicates only in certain primate cells. In murine cells expressing cyclin T1, a posttranscriptional block exists such that small amounts of capsid and little infectious virus are released. This block is relieved in part by fusion with human cells. Here we have tested a panel of mouse-human somatic cell hybrids for production of infectious virus. Only those containing human chromosome 2 were permissive, which correlated with capsid production. The effect was specific to HIV in that release of murine leukemia virus was minimally affected by the presence of chromosome 2. Although expression of Vpu markedly increased capsid production in the absence of chromosome 2, it did not result in a corresponding increase in infectious HIV. The presence of chromosome 2 did not have consistent effects on the amount of unspliced viral RNA, whereas the amount of cell-associated Gag p55 was increased a fewfold. These results suggest that processing of HIV Gag can be corrected by one or more genes present on human chromosome 2 to allow production of infectious HIV from murine cells.Journal of Virology 05/2006; 80(7):3406-15. · 5.40 Impact Factor