Cell wall integrity MAPK pathway is essential for lipid homeostasis.
ABSTRACT The highly conserved yeast cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway regulates cellular responses to cell wall and membrane stress. We report that this pathway is activated and essential for viability under growth conditions that alter both the abundance and pattern of synthesis and turnover of membrane phospholipids, particularly phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine. Mutants defective in this pathway exhibit a choline-sensitive inositol auxotrophy, yet fully derepress INO1 and other Opi1p-regulated genes when grown in the absence of inositol. Under these growth conditions, Mpk1p is transiently activated by phosphorylation and stimulates the transcription of known targets of Mpk1p signaling, including genes regulated by the Rlm1p transcription factor. mpk1Delta cells also exhibit severe defects in lipid metabolism, including an abnormal accumulation of phosphatidylcholine, diacylglycerol, triacylglycerol, and free sterols, as well as aberrant turnover of phosphatidylcholine. Overexpression of the NTE1 phospholipase B gene suppresses the choline-sensitive inositol auxotrophy of mpk1Delta cells, whereas overexpression of other phospholipase genes has no effect on this phenotype. These results indicate that an intact cell wall integrity pathway is required for maintaining proper lipid homeostasis in yeast, especially when cells are grown in the absence of inositol.
Article: A transmembrane protein with a cdc2+/CDC28-related kinase activity is required for signaling from the ER to the nucleus.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In eukaryotic cells, the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers a signaling pathway from the ER to the nucleus. Several yeast mutants defective in this pathway map to the ERN1 gene, which protects cells from lethal consequences of stress by signaling for increased expression of BiP and other ER proteins. ERN1 encodes a 1115 amino acid transmembrane protein (Ern1p) whose glycosylated N-terminal portion is located inside microsomes and whose cytoplasmic C-terminal portion carries an essential protein kinase activity. We postulate that Ern1p is the proximal sensor of events in the ER and that binding of ligand causes transduction of information across the ER membrane, leading to activation of a specific set of transcription factors.Cell 09/1993; 74(4):743-56. · 32.40 Impact Factor
Article: Up-regulation of the cell integrity pathway in saccharomyces cerevisiae suppresses temperature sensitivity of the pgs1Delta mutant.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that mutants in the cardiolipin (CL) pathway exhibit temperature-sensitive growth defects that are not associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The pgs1Delta mutant, lacking the first enzyme of the CL pathway, phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase (Pgs1p), has a defective cell wall due to decreased beta-1,3-glucan (Zhong, Q., Gvozdenovic-Jeremic, J., Webster, P., Zhou, J., and Greenberg, M. L. (2005) Mol. Biol. Cell 16, 665-675). Disruption of KRE5, a gene involved in cell wall biogenesis, restores beta-1,3-glucan synthesis and suppresses pgs1Delta temperature sensitivity. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the cell wall defect in pgs1Delta, we show in the current report that pgs1Delta cells have reduced glucan synthase activity and diminished levels of Fks1p, the glucan synthase catalytic subunit. In addition, activation of Slt2p, the downstream effector of the protein kinase C (PKC)-activated cell integrity pathway, was defective in pgs1Delta. The kre5W1166X suppressor restored Slt2p activation and dramatically increased (>10-fold) mRNA levels of FKS2, the alternate catalytic subunit of glucan synthase, partially restoring glucan synthase activity. Consistent with these results, up-regulation of PKC-Slt2 signaling and overexpression of FKS1 or FKS2 alleviated sensitivity of pgs1Delta to cell wall-perturbing agents and restored growth at elevated temperature. These findings demonstrate that functional Pgs1p is essential for cell wall biogenesis and activation of the PKC-Slt2 signaling pathway.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2007; 282(22):15946-53. · 4.77 Impact Factor
Article: Functional and genomic analyses reveal an essential coordination between the unfolded protein response and ER-associated degradation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The unfolded protein response (UPR) regulates gene expression in response to stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We determined the transcriptional scope of the UPR using DNA microarrays. Rather than regulating only ER-resident chaperones and phospholipid biosynthesis, as anticipated from earlier work, the UPR affects multiple ER and secretory pathway functions. Studies of UPR targets engaged in ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) reveal an intimate coordination between these responses: efficient ERAD requires an intact UPR, and UPR induction increases ERAD capacity. Conversely, loss of ERAD leads to constitutive UPR induction. Finally, simultaneous loss of ERAD and the UPR greatly decreases cell viability. Thus, the UPR and ERAD are dynamic responses required for the coordinated disposal of misfolded proteins even in the absence of acute stress.Cell 05/2000; 101(3):249-58. · 32.40 Impact Factor