The role of mammary ductoscopy in breast cancer: a review of the literature.
ABSTRACT Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among American women. It is the second most common cause of cancer death. Genetic analysis using comparative genetic hybridization (CGH) has shown evidence that the majority of breast cancers, approximately 85%, begin in the ductal epithelium with normal cells progressing to atypia and finally to carcinoma. Mammary ductoscopy, also referred to as the intraductal approach, is a new tool that allows direct visualization of the breast ductal system. It enables one to sample the ductal epithelium and may allow identification of early changes cytologically as well as potentially play an important role in aiding surgical excision. This may aid in detection of breast masses long before they are palpable or visible via mammography. Mammary ductoscopy may have a role in the evaluation of women with nipple discharge, high-risk women, or limiting the amount of tissue removed in breast conservation surgery for cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Microdochectomy is usually performed on patients with nipple discharge caused by intraductal proliferative lesions, such as intraductal papilloma and carcinoma. But this operation often sacrifices large amounts of normal mammary gland even when the lesion is a benign intraductal papilloma a few millimeters in diameter. We have developed duct endoscopy for the mammary duct system, and have reliably performed biopsies for intraductal proliferative lesions intraductally. From June 1989 to April 1990, we examined 22 cases by duct endoscopy, and performed endoscopic biopsy in 16 cases. The method of endoscopic biopsy is as follows. First, a bougie is inserted, without anesthesia other than Xylocaine jelly, into the orifice of the duct to enlarge it. Second, the outer cylinder and the inner needle are inserted; then the inner needle is removed, and the endoscope is inserted. After examination, the outer cylinder is moved up to the lesion to be biopsied and the endoscope is taken out. Then a sample is taken into the outer cylinder by aspiration. We diagnosed 10 cases of benign lesion and 5 cases of malignant lesion by cytological and/or histological examination. In conclusion, endoscopic biopsy, aided by duct endoscopy, is a useful and harmless diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of nipple discharge.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 09/1991; 18(3):179-87. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BackgroundMammary ductoscopy (mammoscopy) is an ideal diagnostic method for intraductal lesions. The usefulness of mammoscopy for intraductal lesions was evaluated. MethodsMammoscopy was performed in 315 cases with nipple discharge. The mammoscopic findings of 46 breast cancer cases (47 lesions) and 109 intraductal papilloma cases (119 lesions) were compared with pathological findings. ResultsCarcinoma was recognized by mammoscopy in 38 of 47 lesions (80.9%). Intraductal masses were detected by mammoscopy in 115 of 119 intraductal papilloma lesions. The shape of the mass was classified as hemispheric, papillary, or flat protrusion. The hemispheric and papillary shapes were most common in cases of intraductal papilloma and the flat protrusion type was most common in cases of carcinoma. The amount of material collected by intraductal biopsy under mammoscopic observation was smaller in carcinoma than in intraductal papilloma because the carcinoma lesions were usually located in peripheral ductlobular units and had weak tissue cohesion compared with that of intraductal papilloma. Of 133 intraductal biopsies performed for 69 intraductal papillomas, 17 biopsies yielded material insufficient for diagnosis in. The effectiveness of treatment by intraductal biopsy was recognized in 38 of 46 intraductal papillomas in which clinical follow-up continued for more than two years (82.6%). The therapeutic results of biopsy were poor in cases of multiple intraductal masses in multiple duct-lobular units. ConclusionsMammoscopy contributes not only the diagnosis in cases of nipple discharge, but is also of benefit in the treatment of intraductal papilloma.Breast Cancer 07/2001; 8(3):213-221. · 1.33 Impact Factor
Article: Nipple discharge.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: By performing a thoughtful evaluation including a detailed history and careful physical examination, appropriate studies can be selected to allow the practitioner to arrive at the correct diagnosis of nipple discharge in a nonmorbid, expeditious, and inexpensive manner. This article has presented a simple, cost-effective, minimally morbid algorithm for the evaluation of nipple discharge.Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America 04/2002; 29(1):21-9. · 1.45 Impact Factor