Genetic engineering of T cells for adoptive immunotherapy.
ABSTRACT To be effective for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases, T cell adoptive immunotherapy requires large numbers of cells with abundant proliferative reserves and intact effector functions. We are achieving these goals using a gene therapy strategy wherein the desired characteristics are introduced into a starting cell population, primarily by high efficiency lentiviral vector-mediated transduction. Modified cells are then expanded using ex vivo expansion protocols designed to minimally alter the desired cellular phenotype. In this article, we focus on strategies to (1) dissect the signals controlling T cell proliferation; (2) render CD4 T cells resistant to HIV-1 infection; and (3) redirect CD8 T cell antigen specificity.
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ABSTRACT: Although tumor-infiltrating T cells have been documented in ovarian carcinoma, a clear association with clinical outcome has not been established. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of 186 frozen specimens from advanced-stage ovarian carcinomas to assess the distribution of tumor-infiltrating T cells and conducted outcome analyses. Molecular analyses were performed in some tumors by real-time polymerase chain reaction. CD3+ tumor-infiltrating T cells were detected within tumor-cell islets (intratumoral T cells) in 102 of the 186 tumors (54.8 percent); they were undetectable in 72 tumors (38.7 percent); the remaining 12 tumors (6.5 percent) could not be evaluated. There were significant differences in the distributions of progression-free survival and overall survival according to the presence or absence of intratumoral T cells (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The five-year overall survival rate was 38.0 percent among patients whose tumors contained T cells and 4.5 percent among patients whose tumors contained no T cells in islets. Significant differences in the distributions of progression-free survival and overall survival according to the presence or absence of intratumoral T cells (P<0.001 for both comparisons) were also seen among 74 patients with a complete clinical response after debulking and platinum-based chemotherapy: the five-year overall survival rate was 73.9 percent among patients whose tumors contained T cells and 11.9 percent among patients whose tumors contained no T cells in islets. The presence of intratumoral T cells independently correlated with delayed recurrence or delayed death in multivariate analysis and was associated with increased expression of interferon-gamma, interleukin-2, and lymphocyte-attracting chemokines within the tumor. The absence of intratumoral T cells was associated with increased levels of vascular endothelial growth factor. The presence of intratumoral T cells correlates with improved clinical outcome in advanced ovarian carcinoma.New England Journal of Medicine 01/2003; 348(3):203-13. · 53.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mesothelin is a differentiation antigen present on normal mesothelial cells and overexpressed in several human tumors, including mesothelioma and ovarian and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The mesothelin gene encodes a precursor protein that is processed to yield the 40-kDa protein, mesothelin, attached to the cell membrane by a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol linkage and a 31-kDa shed fragment named megakaryocyte-potentiating factor. The biological function of mesothelin is not known. Mesothelin is a promising candidate for tumor-specific therapy, given its limited expression in normal tissues and high expression in several cancers. SS1(dsFv)PE38 is a recombinant anti-mesothelin immunotoxin that is undergoing clinical evaluation in patients with mesothelin-expressing tumors. There is evidence that mesothelin is an immunogenic protein and could be exploited as a therapeutic cancer vaccine. A soluble mesothelin variant has been identified and could be a useful tumor marker for malignant mesotheliomas.Clinical Cancer Research 07/2004; 10(12 Pt 1):3937-42. · 7.74 Impact Factor
Article: High-avidity CTL exploit two complementary mechanisms to provide better protection against viral infection than low-avidity CTL.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Previously, we observed that high-avidity CTL are much more effective in vivo than low-avidity CTL in elimination of infected cells, but the mechanisms behind their superior activity remained unclear. In this study, we identify two complementary mechanisms: 1) high-avidity CTL lyse infected cells earlier in the course of a viral infection by recognizing lower Ag densities than those distinguished by low-avidity CTL and 2) they initiate lysis of target cells more rapidly at any given Ag density. Alternative mechanisms were excluded, including: 1) the possibility that low-avidity CTL might control virus given more time (virus levels remained as high at 6 days following transfer as at 3 days) and 2) that differences in efficacy might be correlated with homing ability. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of high- and low-avidity CTL into SCID mice demonstrated that transfer of a 10-fold greater amount of low-avidity CTL could only partially compensate for their decreased ability to eliminate infected cells. Thus, we conclude that high-avidity CTL exploit two complementary mechanisms that combine to prevent the spread of virus within the animal: earlier recognition of infected cells when little viral protein has been made and more rapid lysis of infected cells.The Journal of Immunology 03/2001; 166(3):1690-7. · 5.79 Impact Factor