Endothelial protein C receptor-assisted transport of activated protein C across the mouse blood-brain barrier. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

Department of Neurosurgery, Center for Neurodegenerative and Vascular Brain Disorders, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York 14642, USA.
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 5.41). 10/2008; 29(1):25-33. DOI: 10.1038/jcbfm.2008.117
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Activated protein C (APC), a serine-protease with anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective activities, is neuroprotective and holds potential to treat different neurologic disorders. It is unknown whether APC crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to reach its therapeutic targets in the brain. By using a brain vascular perfusion technique, we show that (125)I-labeled plasma-derived mouse APC enters the brain from cerebrovascular circulation by a concentration-dependent mechanism. The permeability surface area product of (125)I-APC (0.1 nmol/L) in different forebrain regions ranged from 3.11 to 4.13 microL/min/g brain. This was approximately 80- to 110-fold greater than for (14)C-inulin, a simultaneously infused reference tracer. The K(m) value for APC BBB cortical transport was 1.6+/-0.2 nmol/L. Recombinant APC variants with reduced anticoagulant activity, 5A-APC and 3K3A-APC, but not protein C, exhibited high affinity for the APC BBB transport system. Blockade of APC-binding site on endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), but not blockade of its protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) catalytic site, inhibited by >85% APC entry into the brain. APC brain uptake was reduced by 64% in severely deficient EPCR mice, but not in PAR1 null mice. These data suggest that APC and its variants with reduced anticoagulant activity cross the BBB via EPCR-mediated saturable transport.

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Available from: Francis J Castellino, Feb 13, 2014
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    • "The decrease in cardiac MDA and 3-NT levels in rhAPC-treated animals led to improved systemic hemodynamics within the limits of the cerebral autoregulation, thereby stabilizing cerebral blood flow. APC has also been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier [36] and to have neuroprotective effects in ischemic stroke models [37] and heat stroke models [38]. The origin of cerebral dysfunction in patients with sepsis is still unclear and may be related to increased intracranial pressure due to increased cerebral blood flow. "
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective, randomized, controlled, experimental animal study looks at the effects of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) on global hemodynamics and microcirculation in ovine acute lung injury (ALI) and septic shock, resulting from smoke inhalation injury. Twenty-one sheep (37 ± 2 kg) were operatively prepared for chronic study and randomly allocated to either the sham, control, or rhAPC group (n = 7 each). The control and rhAPC groups were subjected to insufflation of four sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke followed by instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa into both lung lobes, according to an established protocol. Healthy sham animals were not subjected to the injury and received only four sets of 12 breaths of room air and instillation of the vehicle (normal saline). rhAPC (24 μg/kg/hour) was intravenously administered from 1 hour post injury until the end of the 24-hour experiment. Regional microvascular blood flow was analyzed using colored microspheres. All sheep were mechanically ventilated with 100% oxygen, and fluid resuscitated with lactated Ringer's solution to maintain hematocrit at baseline levels. The rhAPC-associated reduction in heart malondialdehyde (MDA) and heart 3-nitrotyrosine (a reliable indicator of tissue injury) levels occurred parallel to a significant increase in mean arterial pressure and to a significant reduction in heart rate and cardiac output compared with untreated controls that showed a typical hypotensive, hyperdynamic response to the injury (P < 0.05). In addition, rhAPC significantly attenuated the changes in microvascular blood flow to the trachea, kidney, and spleen compared with untreated controls (P < 0.05 each). Blood flow to the ileum and pancreas, however, remained similar between groups. The cerebral blood flow as measured in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, thalamus, pons, and hypothalamus, was significantly increased in untreated controls, due to a loss of cerebral autoregulation in septic shock. rhAPC stabilized cerebral blood flow at baseline levels, as in the sham group. We conclude that rhAPC stabilized cardiovascular functions and attenuated the changes in visceral and cerebral microcirculation in sheep suffering from ALI and septic shock by reduction of cardiac MDA and 3-nitrotyrosine.
    Critical care (London, England) 11/2010; 14(6):R217. DOI:10.1186/cc9342 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    • "In additional experiments, we applied another antibody against EPCR, RCR-252. This antibody was shown previously to effectively block APC binding to EPCR on mouse endothelium (Deane et al. 2009) and to inhibit the proliferative effect of APC in rat keratinocytes (our unpublished observation). RCR-252, similarly to P-20, completely blocked the action of APC on neurons at glutamate toxicity (Fig. 2). "
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    ABSTRACT: Activated protein C (APC) is an anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory factor that acts via endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR). Interestingly, APC also exhibits neuroprotective activities. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time expression of EPCR, the receptor for APC, in rat cortical and hippocampal neurons. Moreover, exposing the neurons to glutamate excitotoxicity we studied the functional consequence of the expression of EPCR. By cytotoxicity assay we showed that EPCR was necessary for the APC-mediated protective effect in both neuronal cell types in culture. The effect of APC was abrogated in the presence of blocking EPCR antibodies. Analysis of neuronal death by cell labelling with dyes which allow distinguishing living and dead cells confirmed that the anti-apoptotic effect of APC was dependent on both EPCR and protease-activated receptor-1. Thus, we suggest that binding of APC to EPCR on neurons and subsequent activation of protease-activated receptor-1 by the complex of APC-EPCR promotes survival mechanisms after exposure of neurons to damaging factors.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 09/2009; 111(4):967-75. DOI:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06380.x · 4.28 Impact Factor
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    • "Although the inflammatory reactions might be different after ischemia/reperfusion, based on previous work with wt-APC demonstrating its effectiveness in ischemia reperfusion models (Shibata et al., 2001; Cheng et al., 2003, 2006), one might expect that 3K3A-APC will also be effective after transient brain ischemia as it is after permanent ischemia. It has been recently reported that wt-APC and its analogs with reduced anticoagulant activity including 3K3A-APC cross the intact blood-brain barrier via EPCR-mediated transport (Deane et al., 2008). Therefore it is possible that the direct action of 3K3A-APC on neurons contributes to the observed neuroprotection in vivo. "
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    ABSTRACT: The anticoagulant activated protein C (APC) protects neurons and endothelium via protease activated receptor (PAR)1, PAR3 and endothelial protein C receptor. APC is neuroprotective in stroke models. Bleeding complications may limit the pharmacologic utility of APC. Here, we compared the 3K3A-APC mutant with 80% reduced anticoagulant activity and wild-type (wt)-APC. Murine 3K3A-APC compared with wt-APC protected mouse cortical neurons from N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced apoptosis with twofold greater efficacy and more potently reduced N-methyl-D-aspartate excitotoxic lesions in vivo. Human 3K3A-APC protected human brain endothelial cells (BECs) from oxygen/glucose deprivation with 1.7-fold greater efficacy than wt-APC. 3K3A-APC neuronal protection required PAR1 and PAR3, as shown by using PAR-specific blocking antibodies and PAR1- and PAR3-deficient cells and mice. BEC protection required endothelial protein C receptor and PAR1. In neurons and BECs, 3K3A-APC blocked caspase-9 and -3 activation and induction of p53, and decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 pro-apoptotic ratio. After distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) in mice, murine 3K3A-APC compared with vehicle given 4:00 h after dMCAO improved the functional outcome and reduced the infarction volume by 50% within 3 days. 3K3A-APC compared with wt-APC multi-dosing therapy at 12:00 h, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after dMCAO significantly improved functional recovery and reduced the infarction volume by 75% and 38%, respectively, within 7 days. The wt-APC, but not 3K3A-APC, significantly increased the risk of intracerebral bleeding as indicated by a 50% increase in hemoglobin levels in the ischemic hemisphere. Thus, 3K3A-APC offers a new approach for safer and more efficacious treatments of neurodegenerative disorders and stroke with APC.
    European Journal of Neuroscience 04/2009; 29(6):1119-30. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06664.x · 3.18 Impact Factor
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