Dephosphorylation by calcineurin regulates translocation of Drp1 to mitochondria.

Dulbecco-Telethon Institute, Padua, Italy.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 11/2008; 105(41):15803-8. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0808249105
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Changes in mitochondrial morphology that occur during cell cycle, differentiation, and death are tightly regulated by the balance between fusion and fission processes. Excessive fragmentation can be caused by inhibition of the fusion machinery and is a common consequence of dysfunction of the organelle. Here, we show a role for calcineurin-dependent translocation of the profission dynamin related protein 1 (Drp1) to mitochondria in dysfunction-induced fragmentation. When mitochondrial depolarization is associated with sustained cytosolic Ca(2+) rise, it activates the cytosolic phosphatase calcineurin that normally interacts with Drp1. Calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of Drp1, and in particular of its conserved serine 637, regulates its translocation to mitochondria as substantiated by site directed mutagenesis. Thus, fragmentation of depolarized mitochondria depends on a loop involving sustained Ca(2+) rise, activation of calcineurin, and dephosphorylation of Drp1 and its translocation to the organelle.

Download full-text


Available from: Luca Scorrano, Jul 01, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Controlled changes in mitochondrial morphology participate in cellular signaling cascades. However, the molecular mechanisms modifying mitochondrial shape are largely unknown. Here we show that the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade member extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylates the pro-fusion protein mitofusin (MFN) 1, modulating its participation in apoptosis and mitochondrial fusion. Phosphoproteomic and biochemical analyses revealed that MFN1 is phosphorylated at an atypical ERK site in its heptad repeat (HR) 1 domain. This site proved essential to mediate MFN1-dependent mitochondrial elongation and apoptosis regulation by the MEK/ERK cascade. A mutant mimicking constitutive MFN1 phosphorylation was less efficient in oligomerizing and mitochondria tethering but bound more avidly to the proapoptotic BCL-2 family member BAK, facilitating its activation and cell death. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis following oxygen glucose deprivation and MEK/ERK activation required an intact MFN1(T562). Our data identify MFN1 as an ERK target to modulate mitochondrial shape and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Molecular cell 03/2015; 104(2). DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2015.02.021 · 14.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson’s disease (PD), caused by selective loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra, is the most common movement disorder with no cure or effective treatment. Exposure to the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone recapitulates pathological hallmarks of PD in rodents and selective loss of DA neurons in Drosophila. However, mechanisms underlying rotenone toxicity are not completely resolved. We previously reported a neuroprotective effect of human uncoupling protein 2 (hUCP2) against rotenone toxicity in adult fly DA neurons. In the current study, we show that increased mitochondrial fusion is protective from rotenone toxicity whereas increased fission sensitizes the neurons to rotenone-induced cell loss in vivo. In primary DA neurons, rotenone-induced mitochondrial fragmentation and lethality is attenuated as the result of hucp2 expression. To test the idea that the neuroprotective mechanism of hUCP2 involves modulation of mitochondrial dynamics, we detect preserved mitochondrial network, mobility and fusion events in hucp2 expressing DA neurons exposed to rotenone. hucp2 expression also increases intracellular cAMP levels. Thus, we hypothesize that cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) might be an effector that mediates hUCP2-associated neuroprotection against rotenone. Indeed, PKA inhibitors block preserved mitochondrial integrity, movement and cell survival in hucp2 expressing DA neurons exposed to rotenone. Taken together, we present strong evidence identifying a hUCP2-PKA axis that controls mitochondrial dynamics and survival in DA neurons exposed to rotenone implicating a novel therapeutic strategy in modifying the progression of PD pathogenesis.
    Neurobiology of Disease 09/2014; 69. DOI:10.1016/j.nbd.2014.05.032 · 5.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Protein & Cell 07/2014; 5(8). DOI:10.1007/s13238-014-0085-5 · 2.85 Impact Factor