Adenosine and inflammation: CD39 and CD73 are critical mediators in LPS-induced PMN trafficking into the lungs

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
The FASEB Journal (Impact Factor: 5.48). 11/2008; 23(2):473-82. DOI: 10.1096/fj.08-119701
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Extracellular adenosine has been implicated as anti-inflammatory signaling molecule during acute lung injury (ALI). The main source of extracellular adenosine stems from a coordinated two-step enzymatic conversion of precursor nucleotides via the ecto-apyrase (CD39) and the ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73). In the present study, we hypothesized a critical role of CD39 and CD73 in mediating pulmonary neutrophil (PMN) transmigration during lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced lung injury. Initial studies revealed that pulmonary CD39 and CD73 transcript levels were elevated following LPS exposure in vivo. Moreover, LPS-induced accumulation of PMN into the lungs was enhanced in cd39(-/-) or cd73(-/-) mice, particularly into the interstitial and intra-alveolar compartment. Such increases in PMN trafficking were accompanied by corresponding changes in alveolar-capillary leakage. Similarly, inhibition of extracellular nucleotide phosphohydrolysis with the nonspecific ecto-nucleoside-triphosphate-diphosphohydrolases inhibitor POM-1 confirmed increased pulmonary PMN accumulation in wild-type, but not in gene-targeted mice for cd39 or cd73. Finally, treatment with apyrase or nucleotidase was associated with attenuated pulmonary neutrophil accumulation and pulmonary edema during LPS-induced lung injury. Taken together, these data reveal a previously unrecognized role for CD39 and CD73 in attenuating PMN trafficking into the lungs during LPS-induced lung injury and suggest treatment with their soluble compounds as a therapeutic strategy.

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    ABSTRACT: Hyperoxic lung injury is characterized by cellular damage from high oxygen concentrations that lead to an inflammatory response in the lung with cellular infiltration and pulmonary edema. Adenosine is a signaling molecule that is generated extracellularly by CD73 in response to injury. Extracellular adenosine signals through cell surface receptors and has been found to be elevated and plays a protective role in acute injury situations. In particular, ADORA2B activation is protective in acute lung injury. However, little is known about the role of adenosine signaling in hyperoxic lung injury. We hypothesized that hyperoxia-induced lung injury leads to CD73-mediated increases in extracellular adenosine, which is protective through ADORA2B signaling pathways. To test this hypothesis, we exposed C57BL6, CD73−/−, and Adora2B−/− mice to 95% oxygen or room air and examined markers of pulmonary inflammation, edema, and monitored lung histology. Hyperoxic exposure caused pulmonary inflammation and edema in association with elevations in lung adenosine levels. Loss of CD73-mediated extracellular adenosine production exacerbated pulmonary edema without affecting inflammatory cell counts. Furthermore, loss of the ADORA2B had similar results with worsening of pulmonary edema following hyperoxia exposure without affecting inflammatory cell infiltration. This loss of barrier function correlated with a decrease in occludin in pulmonary vasculature in CD73−/− and Adora2B−/− mice following hyperoxia exposure. These results demonstrate that exposure to a hyperoxic environment causes lung injury associated with an increase in adenosine concentration, and elevated adenosine levels protect vascular barrier function in hyperoxic lung injury through the ADORA2B-dependent regulation of occludin.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study the transcriptomic profiling of adenosine receptors (ARs) in human leukocytes of heart failure (HF) patients as a function of clinical severity, assessing the possible changes with respect to healthy subjects (C), was evaluated. Total RNA was extracted from leukocytes of C (n = 8) and of HF patients (NYHA I-II n = 9; NYHA III-IV n = 14) with a PAXgene Blood RNA Kit. An increase as a function of clinical severity was observed in each AR (A1R: C = 0.02 ± 0.009, NYHA I-II = 0.21 ± 0.09, NYHA III-IV = 3.6 ± 1.3, P = 0.03 C versus NYHA III-IV, P = 0.02 NYHA I-II versus NYHA III-IV; A2aR: C = 0.2 ± 0.05, NYHA I-II = 0.19 ± 0.04, NYHA III-IV = 1.32 ± 0.33, P = 0.005 C versus NYHA III-IV, P = 0.003 NYHA I-II versus NYHA III-IV; A2bR: C = 1.78 ± 0.36, NYHA I-II = 1.35 ± 0.29, NYHA III-IV = 4.07 ± 1.21, P = 0.03: NYHA I-II versus NYHA III-IV; A3R: C = 0.76 ± 0.21, NYHA I-II = 0.94 ± 0.19, NYHA III-IV = 3.14 ± 0.77, P = 0.01 C versus NYHA III-IV and NYHA I-II versus NYHA III-IV, resp.). The mRNA expression of the ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (CD39) and the ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) were also evaluated. They resulted up-regulated. These findings show that components of adenosine metabolism and signalling are altered to promote adenosine production and signalling in HF patients. Thus, HF may benefit from adenosine-based drug therapy after confirmation by clinical trials.
    07/2013; 2013:569438. DOI:10.1155/2013/569438
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic lung diseases and acute lung injuries are two distinctive pulmonary disorders that result in significant morbidity and mortality. Adenosine is a signaling nucleoside generated in response to injury and can serve both protective and destructive functions in tissues and cells through interaction with four G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1R, A2AR, A2BR, and A3R. However, the relationship between these factors is poorly understood. Recent findings suggest the A2BR has been implicated in the regulation of both chronic lung disease and acute lung injury. The work presented in this dissertation utilized the adenosine deaminase-deficient mouse model and the bleomycin-induced pulmonary injury model to determine the distinctive roles of the A2BR at different stages of the disease. Results demonstrate that the A2BR plays a protective role in attenuating vascular leakage in acute lung injuries and a detrimental role at chronic stages of the disease. In addition, tissues from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were utilized to examine adenosine metabolism and signaling in chronic lung diseases. Results demonstrate that components of adenosine metabolism and signaling are altered in a manner that promotes adenosine production and signaling in the lungs of these patients. Furthermore, this study provides the first evidence that A2BR signaling can promote the production of inflammatory and fibrotic mediators in patients with these disorders. Taken together, these findings suggest that the A2BR may have a bi-phasic effect at different stages of lung disease. It is protective in acute injury, whereas pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic at the chronic stage. Patients with acute lung injury or chronic lung disease may both benefit from adenosine and A2BR-based therapeutics.