Heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants collected from environmentally different sites.
ABSTRACT To estimate the heavy metal content in soil and selected medicinal plants procured from environmentally different sites of the same city.
Soil and plant samples of Abutilon indicum, Calotropis procera, Euphorbia hirta, Peristrophe bycaliculata, and Tinospora cordifolia were collected from 3 environmentally different sites of the city: heavy traffic area (HTA), industrial area (IA), and residential area (RA). Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni were estimated in soil and plant samples by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and compared.
The level of heavy metal was higher in soil than in plant parts studied. Accumulation of heavy metals varied from plant to plant. Pb was the highest in Calotropis procera root from HTA site and the lowest in Peristrophe bycaliculata whole plant from IA site. It was also lower in residential area than in heavy traffic area.
The level of heavy metal content differed in the same medicinal plant collected from environmentally different sites of the same city. Thus, it reiterates our belief that every medicinal plant sample should be tested for contaminant load before processing it further for medication.
- SourceAvailable from: Johnson Roch Christian[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the level of contamination with toxic heavy metals in anti-malarial plants sold in the markets of Cotonou, some anti-malarial plants were selected through an ethno-botanic survey by using the ATRM (Triple Purchase of Healing Plants) a method elaborated in Togo. Out of 35 species of plants listed as anti-malarial, 5 were selected for the assessment of the contamination with toxic heavy metals. Our study showed that the maximal values for almost all samples contaminated with lead and Cadmium was above the standards accepted by the World Health Organization (WHO). Besides, it was revealed that the contamination with toxic heavy metals depends on each species as well as on the site of purchase. Senna rotundifolia was more contaminated with lead (2.733mg / kg ± 0.356mg / kg) and with cadmium (0.583mg / kg ± 0.044mg / kg) on the site of Vossa than on the site of Dantokpa (1.825mg/kg ± 0.133mg/ kg and 0.062mg/kg ± 0.015mg/kg) respectively. It comes out of our investigations that the administration of herbal preparations containing these plants could have an impact on the health of the populations and on the environment.Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES). 05/2014; 4(5):285-295.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is investigation of contamination levels and assessment of health risk effects of heavy metals in herbal pills. 31 Items and 93 samples were obtained for this investigation from major herbal medicine producing areas, herbal markets and on-line supermarkets from Jan to Jun in 2010. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer method was conducted for the quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd and As. In addition, the mercury analyzer system was conducted for that of Hg without sample digestion. The average contents of heavy metals in samples were as follows : 0.87 mg/kg for Pb, 0.08 mg/kg for Cd, 2.87 mg/kg for As and 0.16 mg/kg for Hg, respectively. In addition, the average contents of heavy metals in different parts of plants, including cortex, fructus, herba, radix, seed, algae and others were 0.63 mg/kg, 3.94 mg/kg, 1.42 mg/kg, 1.05 mg/kg, 0.16 mg/kg, 22.31 mg/kg and 10.17 mg/kg, respectively. After the estimations of dietary exposure, the acceptable daily intake (ADI), the average daily dose (ADD), the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) and the relative hazard of heavy metals were evaluated. As the results, the relative hazards compared to PTWI in samples were below the recommended standard of JECFA as Pb 3.1%, Cd 0.9%, Hg 0.5%. Cancer risks through slope factor (SF) by Ministry of Environment Republic Korea and Environmental Protection Agency was for Pb and for As (assuming that the total arsenic content was equal to the inorganic arsenic). Based on our results, possible Pb-induced cancer risks in herbal pills according to parts used including cortex, fructus, herba, radix, seed, algae and others were , , , , , and , respectively. Possible As-induced cancer risks in herbal pills by parts used including cortex, fructus, herba, radix, seed, algae and others were , , , , , and respectively. Taken together, these results indicate that the majority of samples except for some samples with relative high contents of heavy metals were safe.Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety. 01/2012; 27(4).
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Immunomodulation relates to potentiation or suppression of the immune responses of the host, depending on the requirement of the situation. Tinospora cordifolia (T.C.), an indispensable medicinal plant, has been used for the treatment of various diseases and has been recommended for improving the immune system. In the current study, we have evaluated the cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory activity of the aqueous extract of T.C. using in vitro and ex vivo models. Results show that there was dose-dependant cytotoxicity in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. ~90% cytotoxicity was observed 72 hours post-treatment with 100µg/ml of T.C. extract. Interestingly, a low dose of 1µg/ml also showed ~60% cytotoxicity. Further, the aqueous extract of T.C. exhibited boosting of phagocytic ability of macrophages, remarkable enhancement in nitric oxide production by stimulation of splenocytes and macrophages at 1mg/kg dosage of the extract. Immunomodulatory ability of a compound can be determined by its capability to influence the cytokine production, mitogenicity, stimulation and activation of immune effector cells. The extracts have been investigated for their effect on the cytokine profile (IL-6) by ELISA. Splenocytes cultured in low concentration of T.C, as low as 1.56 µg/ml, produced significantly higher levels of IL-6 as compared to un-stimulated cells. The present study reveals the multifaceted immunomodulatory potential of T.C..