Heavy metal accumulation in medicinal plants collected from environmentally different sites.
ABSTRACT To estimate the heavy metal content in soil and selected medicinal plants procured from environmentally different sites of the same city.
Soil and plant samples of Abutilon indicum, Calotropis procera, Euphorbia hirta, Peristrophe bycaliculata, and Tinospora cordifolia were collected from 3 environmentally different sites of the city: heavy traffic area (HTA), industrial area (IA), and residential area (RA). Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni were estimated in soil and plant samples by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry and compared.
The level of heavy metal was higher in soil than in plant parts studied. Accumulation of heavy metals varied from plant to plant. Pb was the highest in Calotropis procera root from HTA site and the lowest in Peristrophe bycaliculata whole plant from IA site. It was also lower in residential area than in heavy traffic area.
The level of heavy metal content differed in the same medicinal plant collected from environmentally different sites of the same city. Thus, it reiterates our belief that every medicinal plant sample should be tested for contaminant load before processing it further for medication.
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ABSTRACT: In order to investigate the level of contamination with toxic heavy metals in anti-malarial plants sold in the markets of Cotonou, some anti-malarial plants were selected through an ethno-botanic survey by using the ATRM (Triple Purchase of Healing Plants) a method elaborated in Togo. Out of 35 species of plants listed as anti-malarial, 5 were selected for the assessment of the contamination with toxic heavy metals. Our study showed that the maximal values for almost all samples contaminated with lead and Cadmium was above the standards accepted by the World Health Organization (WHO). Besides, it was revealed that the contamination with toxic heavy metals depends on each species as well as on the site of purchase. Senna rotundifolia was more contaminated with lead (2.733mg / kg ± 0.356mg / kg) and with cadmium (0.583mg / kg ± 0.044mg / kg) on the site of Vossa than on the site of Dantokpa (1.825mg/kg ± 0.133mg/ kg and 0.062mg/kg ± 0.015mg/kg) respectively. It comes out of our investigations that the administration of herbal preparations containing these plants could have an impact on the health of the populations and on the environment.Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences (JBES). 05/2014; 4(5):285-295.
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ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the factors affecting content of essential and potentially toxic heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni) in medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) and related pharmaceutical products. Metals in the MAPs and herbal products may be present in the concentrations that are beneficial to the users to correct micronutrient deficiencies or they may be present in concentrations that may pose threat to the consumer’s health. Important factors affecting concentration of heavy metals in the MAPs are: growing site conditions and soil chemical characteristics, particularly soil pH. At acid conditions, mobility and availability of metals are generally high, which mainly result in their high uptake and accumulation in the MAPs (e.g. Cd accumulation in various plants, especially Hypericumperforatum). Additionally, anthropogenic pollution of soil and air affect metal contents in the MAPs. The highest reported values of most toxic metals: Cd and Pb in the above ground parts (flowers, leaves and herb) of the MAPs are frequently associated with air contamination and depositions. Furthermore, the species and genotypes of a species differ greatly in their ability for metal uptake. Recent studies have shown that some MAPs, particularly Hypericum perforatum, may show higher Cd contents than other plants grown under the same conditions. Heavy metals content in the MAPs may also be influenced by fertilization mode and/or harvesting time. Finaly, MAPs and herbal preparations may (deliberately or accidentally) be contaminated with heavy metals during harvest, drying, storage and/or processing. Interaction of all the factors result in large differences in heavy metals content between species and even within varieties of the same species. Heavy metals content in a final pharmaceutical product (e.g. herb teas, ethanol extracts, and essential oils) is in addition affected by metals content in a plant organ for further processing and effectiveness of an extraction mode. Distilled essential oils and herb teas are generally found to be free or low in heavy metals, even prepared from the MAPs with high metals content. Thus, herbal based pharmaceutical products pose a low potential risk for human intoxication with heavy metals. However, there should be awareness that a good quality of the MAPs and that of the final pharmaceutical products (drugs) is of a primare importance. They should be free from potentially harmful constituents to human health, which can only be achived by: continuous monitoring of heavy metals in soils, MAPs and final products; carefull choise of growing site; selection of suitable genotypes and appropriate management of soil, crops, and herb processing.Seventh Conference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of Southeast European Countries; 05/2012
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ABSTRACT: Populations of medicinal plants growing on serpentines and their respective soils were analyzed for Fe, Ni, Mn, Cr, Co, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Aqua regia extraction and 0.43 M acetic acid extraction were used for the quantification of pseudototal and bioavailable fractions, respectively, of elements in soil and nitric acid digestion for determination of total element content in plants. Screening was performed to (1) document levels of toxic metals in herbs extensively used in preparation of products and standardized extracts, (2) compare accumulation abilities of ferns and seed plants, and (3) estimate correlations between metal content in plants and their soils. The toxic element content of plants varied from site to site on a large scale. The concentrations of Fe and Ni were elevated while those of Cu, Zn, and Pb were close to average values usually found in plants. The highest concentrations for almost all elements were measured in both Teucrium species. Specific differences in metal accumulation between ferns and seed plants were not recorded. The investigated species are not hyperaccumulators but can accumulate toxic elements, in some cases exceeding permissible levels proposed by the World Health Organization and European Pharmacopoeia. The harvesting of medicinal plants from serpentines could be hazardous to humans.Biological trace element research 10/2013; · 1.92 Impact Factor