Article

Direct observation of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall digestion by lysostaphin.

Unité de Chimie des Interfaces, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.
Journal of bacteriology (Impact Factor: 3.94). 11/2008; 190(24):7904-9. DOI: 10.1128/JB.01116-08
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The advent of Staphylococcus aureus strains that are resistant to virtually all antibiotics has increased the need for new antistaphylococcal agents. An example of such a potential therapeutic is lysostaphin, an enzyme that specifically cleaves the S. aureus peptidoglycan, thereby lysing the bacteria. Here we tracked over time the structural and physical dynamics of single S. aureus cells exposed to lysostaphin, using atomic force microscopy. Topographic images of native cells revealed a smooth surface morphology decorated with concentric rings attributed to newly formed peptidoglycan. Time-lapse images collected following addition of lysostaphin revealed major structural changes in the form of cell swelling, splitting of the septum, and creation of nanoscale perforations. Notably, treatment of the cells with lysostaphin was also found to decrease the bacterial spring constant and the cell wall stiffness, demonstrating that structural changes were correlated with major differences in cell wall nanomechanical properties. We interpret these modifications as resulting from the digestion of peptidoglycan by lysostaphin, eventually leading to the formation of osmotically fragile cells. This study provides new insight into the lytic activity of lysostaphin and offers promising prospects for the study of new antistaphylococcal agents.

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