Chronic Particulate Exposure, Mortality, and Coronary Heart Disease in the Nurses’ Health Study
ABSTRACT Adverse health effects of exposures to acute air pollution have been well studied. Fewer studies have examined effects of chronic exposure. Previous studies used exposure estimates for narrow time periods and were limited by the geographic distribution of pollution monitors. This study examined the association of chronic particulate exposures with all-cause mortality, incident nonfatal myocardial infarction, and fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) in a prospective cohort of 66,250 women from the Nurses' Health Study in northeastern US metropolitan areas. Nonfatal outcomes were assessed through self-report and medical record review and fatalities through death certificates and medical record review. During follow-up (1992-2002), 3,785 deaths and 1,348 incident fatal CHD and nonfatal myocardial infarctions occurred. In age- and calendar-time-adjusted models, 10-microg/m(3) increases in 12-month average exposures to particulate matter <10 microm in diameter were associated with increased all-cause mortality (16%, 95% confidence interval: 5, 28) and fatal CHD (43%, 95% confidence interval: 10, 86). Adjustment for body mass index and physical activity weakened these associations. Body mass index and smoking modified the association between exposure to particulate matter <10 microm in diameter and fatal CHD. In this population, increases in such exposures were associated with increases in all-cause and CHD mortality. Never smokers with higher body mass indexes were at greatest risk of fatal CHD.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jaime Hart, Aug 13, 2015
- SourceAvailable from: C. Arden Pope
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- " term follow - up of subjects who live in different communities ( Dockery et al . 1993 ; Jerrett et al . 2009 ; Krewski et al . 2009 ; Zeger et al . 2008 ) or in different areas within a community ( Beelen et al . 2008 ; Jerrett et al . 2005b ) . Some studies include variation in exposure generated at several spatial levels ( Miller et al . 2007 ; Puett et al . 2008 ) ."
ABSTRACT: Studies in air pollution epidemiology may suffer from some specific forms of confounding and exposure measurement error. This contribution discusses these, mostly in the framework of cohort studies. Evaluation of potential confounding is critical in studies of the health effects of air pollution. The association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality has been investigated using cohort studies in which subjects are followed over time with respect to their vital status. In such studies, control for individual-level confounders such as smoking is important, as is control for area-level confounders such as neighborhood socio-economic status. In addition, there may be spatial dependencies in the survival data that need to be addressed. These issues are illustrated using the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention II cohort. Exposure measurement error is a challenge in epidemiology because inference about health effects can be incorrect when the measured or predicted exposure used in the analysis is different from the underlying true exposure. Air pollution epidemiology rarely if ever uses personal measurements of exposure for reasons of cost and feasibility. Exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology comes in various dominant forms, which are different for time-series and cohort studies. The challenges are reviewed and a number of suggested solutions are discussed for both study domains.Air Quality Atmosphere & Health 06/2012; 5(2):203-216. DOI:10.1007/s11869-011-0140-9 · 1.46 Impact Factor
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- "All of those observations have a common sense: lead to an increased production of H 2 O 2 causing an oxidative misbalance in heart. Several new epidemiological studies have demonstrated that living in locations with higher long-term average PM concentrations increases the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality vastly exceeding the risk noted with short-term exposure (Miller et al. 2007; Puett et al. 2008). Also, PM air pollution has been linked with endothelial dysfunction, systemic oxidative and inflammatory responses and the progression of atherosclerosis (Mills et al. 2007; Sun 2005). "
ABSTRACT: The current study aimed to determine the role of oxidants in cardiac and pulmonary toxicities induced by chronic exposure to ROFA. Eighty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G1 (10 µL Saline), G2 (ROFA 50 µg/10 µL), G3 (ROFA 250 µg/10 µL) and G4 (ROFA 500 µg/10 µL). Rats received ROFA by nasotropic instillation for 90 days. After that, they were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for total count of leukocytes, protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) determinations. Lungs and heart were removed to measure lipid peroxidation (MDA), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. BAL presented an increase in leukocytes count in G4 in comparison to the Saline group (p = 0.019). In lung, MDA level was not modified by ROFA, while CAT was higher in G4 when compared to all other groups (p = 0.013). In heart, G4 presented an increase in MDA (p = 0.016) and CAT (p = 0.027) levels in comparison to G1. The present study demonstrated cardiopulmonary oxidative changes after a chronic ROFA exposure. More specifically, the heart tissue seems to be more susceptible to oxidative effects of long-term exposure to ROFA than the lung.Toxicology mechanisms and methods 05/2012; 22(7):533-9. DOI:10.3109/15376516.2012.692109 · 1.37 Impact Factor
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- "While both the healthy worker effect and attenuation of risk at higher exposures may play a role in the lower effect size for coal dust exposure, the most im portant factor is probably a difference in the particulate, both in terms of particle size distribution and particle composition. The particulate fraction under 2.5 mm (PM2.5, fine particles) is most closely linked with IHD in atmospheric pollution studies [Schwartz et al., 1996; Kan et al., 2007; Puett et al., 2008]. Most particles of this size in ambient air come from combustion sources. "
ABSTRACT: Background Particulate exposure from air pollution increases the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality. Although coal miners are highly exposed to coal dust particulate, studies of IHD mortality risk among coal miners have had inconsistent results. Previous studies may have been biased by the healthy worker effect.Methods We examined the dose–response relationship between cumulative coal dust exposure, coal rank, and IHD mortality among a cohort of underground coal miners who participated in the National Study of Coal Workers' Pneumoconiosis.ResultsAfter adjusting for age, smoking, and body mass index, risk of IHD mortality increased at higher levels of coal dust exposure. Mortality risk was also associated with coal rank region.Conclusion There was an increased risk of mortality from IHD associated with cumulative exposure to coal dust, and with coal rank. The effect of coal rank may be due differences in the composition of coal mine dust particulate. The association of risk of IHD mortality with cumulative particulate exposure is consistent with air pollution studies. Am. J. Ind. Med. 54:727–733, 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.American Journal of Industrial Medicine 10/2011; 54(10):727 - 733. DOI:10.1002/ajim.20986 · 1.59 Impact Factor