Phosphorylation of H3S10 blocks the access of H3K9 by specific antibodies and histone methyltransferase. Implication in regulating chromatin dynamics and epigenetic inheritance during mitosis.
ABSTRACT Post-translational modifications of histones play a critical role in regulating genome structures and integrity. We have focused on the regulatory relationship between covalent modifications of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and H3S10 during the cell cycle. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that H3S10 phosphorylation in HeLa, A549, and HCT116 cells was high during prophase, prometaphase, and metaphase, whereas H3K9 monomethylation (H3K9me1) and dimethylation (H3K9me2), but not H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3), were significantly suppressed. When H3S10 phosphorylation started to diminish during anaphase, H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 signals reemerged. Western blot analyses confirmed that mitotic histones, extracted in an SDS-containing buffer, had little H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 signals but abundant H3K9me3 signals. However, when mitotic histones were extracted in the same buffer without SDS, the difference in H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 signals between interphase and mitotic cells disappeared. Removal of H3S10 phosphorylation by pretreatment with lambda-phosphatase unmasked mitotic H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 signals detected by both fluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. Further, H3S10 phosphorylation completely blocked methylation of H3K9 but not demethylation of the same residue in vitro. Given that several conserved motifs consisting of a Lys residue immediately followed by a Ser residue are present in histone tails, our studies reveal a potential new mechanism by which phosphorylation not only regulates selective access of methylated lysines by cellular factors but also serves to preserve methylation patterns and epigenetic programs during cell division.
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ABSTRACT: TRPM7 is a ubiquitous ion channel and kinase, a unique "chanzyme," required for proper early embryonic development. It conducts Zn(2+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) as well as monovalent cations and contains a functional serine/threonine kinase at its carboxyl terminus. Here, we show that in normal tissues and cell lines, the kinase is proteolytically cleaved from the channel domain in a cell-type-specific manner. These TRPM7 cleaved kinase fragments (M7CKs) translocate to the nucleus and bind multiple components of chromatin-remodeling complexes, including Polycomb group proteins. In the nucleus, the kinase phosphorylates specific serines/threonines of histones. M7CK-dependent phosphorylation of H3Ser10 at promoters of TRPM7-dependent genes correlates with their activity. We also demonstrate that cytosolic free [Zn(2+)] is TRPM7 dependent and regulates M7CK binding to transcription factors containing zinc-finger domains. These findings suggest that TRPM7-mediated modulation of intracellular Zn(2+) concentration couples ion-channel signaling to epigenetic chromatin covalent modifications that affect gene expression patterns. PAPERCLIP:
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ABSTRACT: Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for the identification and quantification of co-existing post-translational modifications (PTMs) in histone proteins. One of the most important challenges in current chromatin biology is to characterize the relationships between co-existing histone marks, the order and hierarchy of their deposition and their distinct biological functions. We developed a database CrossTalkDB to organize observed and reported co-existing histone marks as revealed by MS experiments of histone proteins and their derived peptides. Statistical assessment revealed sample-specific patterns for the co-frequency of histone PTMs. We implemented a new method to identify positive and negative interplay between pairs of methylation and acetylation marks in proteins. Many of the detected features were conserved between different cell types, or exist across species, thereby revealing general rules for crosstalk between histone marks. The observed features are in accordance with previously reported examples of crosstalk. We observed novel types of interplay (1) among acetylated residues, revealing positive crosstalk between nearby acetylated sites but negative crosstalk for distant ones, and (2) for discrete methylation states at K9, K27 and K36 of histone H3, suggesting a more differentiated functional role of methylation beyond the general expectation of enhanced activity at higher methylation states.Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 04/2014; 13(7). DOI:10.1074/mcp.O113.036335 · 7.25 Impact Factor