Phosphorylation of H3S10 blocks the access of H3K9 by specific antibodies and histone methyltransferase. Implication in regulating chromatin dynamics and epigenetic inheritance during mitosis
ABSTRACT Post-translational modifications of histones play a critical role in regulating genome structures and integrity. We have focused on the regulatory relationship between covalent modifications of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) and H3S10 during the cell cycle. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that H3S10 phosphorylation in HeLa, A549, and HCT116 cells was high during prophase, prometaphase, and metaphase, whereas H3K9 monomethylation (H3K9me1) and dimethylation (H3K9me2), but not H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3), were significantly suppressed. When H3S10 phosphorylation started to diminish during anaphase, H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 signals reemerged. Western blot analyses confirmed that mitotic histones, extracted in an SDS-containing buffer, had little H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 signals but abundant H3K9me3 signals. However, when mitotic histones were extracted in the same buffer without SDS, the difference in H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 signals between interphase and mitotic cells disappeared. Removal of H3S10 phosphorylation by pretreatment with lambda-phosphatase unmasked mitotic H3K9me1 and H3K9me2 signals detected by both fluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. Further, H3S10 phosphorylation completely blocked methylation of H3K9 but not demethylation of the same residue in vitro. Given that several conserved motifs consisting of a Lys residue immediately followed by a Ser residue are present in histone tails, our studies reveal a potential new mechanism by which phosphorylation not only regulates selective access of methylated lysines by cellular factors but also serves to preserve methylation patterns and epigenetic programs during cell division.
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- "The development of antibodies specifically recognizing histone marks has enabled to precisely determine the kinetics of phosphorylation events at individual sites. However, those results need to be interpreted with caution bearing in mind a possible problem of antibody occlusion resulting from a negative impact of densely distributed multiple modifications, which has been reported for several antibodies widely used in the chromatin field  . "
ABSTRACT: Post-translation modifications of histones modulate the accessibility and transcriptional competence of specific chromatin regions within the eukaryotic genome. Phosphorylation of histone H3 is unique in the sense that it associates on one hand with open chromatin during gene activation and marks on the other hand highly condensed chromatin during mitosis. Phosphorylation of serine residues at histone H3 is a highly dynamic process that creates together with acetylation and methylation marks at neighboring lysine residues specific combinatorial patterns that are read by specific detector proteins. In this review we describe the importance of different histone H3 phosphorylation marks for chromatin condensation during mitosis. In addition, we review the signals that trigger histone H3 phosphorylation and the factors that control this reversible modification during interphase and mediate the biological readout of the signal. Finally, we discuss different models describing the role of histone H3 phosphorylation in the activation of transcription of poised genes or by transient derepression of epigenetically silenced genes. We propose that histone H3 phosphorylation in the context with lysine methylation might temporarily relieve the silencing of specific genes without affecting the epigenetic memory.Biochimie 04/2012; 94(11):2193-201. DOI:10.1016/j.biochi.2012.04.018 · 2.96 Impact Factor
- "Therefore, H3S10 phosphorylation blocked methylation of H3K9, which gave transcription factors access to DNA during mitosis. Also phosporylation preserves methylation patterns during cell division . "
Article: Epigenetics and Autoimmune Diseases[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Epigenetics is defined as the study of all inheritable and potentially reversible changes in genome function that do not alter the nucleotide sequence within the DNA. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential to carry out key functions in the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, the epigenetic mechanisms are a window to understanding the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of complex diseases such as autoimmune diseases. It is noteworthy that autoimmune diseases do not have the same epidemiology, pathology, or symptoms but do have a common origin that can be explained by the sharing of immunogenetic mechanisms. Currently, epigenetic research is looking for disruption in one or more epigenetic mechanisms to provide new insights into autoimmune diseases. The identification of cell-specific targets of epigenetic deregulation will serve us as clinical markers for diagnosis, disease progression, and therapy approaches.03/2012; 2012(1):593720. DOI:10.1155/2012/593720
- "Histone acetylation can occur at different sites giving rise to the possibility of functional crosstalk between different acetylation marks. In fact, communication is known to occur between the same histone marks (Wang et al., 2008), between marks within the same histone tail (Duan et al., 2008), or between marks in different histone tails (Nakanishi et al., 2008). These data suggest that a single acetylation mark does not determine the state of the chromatin. "
Chapter: Epigenetic Therapies for CancerCurrent Cancer Treatment - Novel Beyond Conventional Approaches, 12/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-397-2