Lysyl oxidase binds transforming growth factor-beta and regulates its signaling via amine oxidase activity.
ABSTRACT Lysyl oxidase (LOX), an amine oxidase critical for the initiation of collagen and elastin cross-linking, has recently been shown to regulate cellular activities possibly by modulating the functions of growth factors. In this study, we investigated the interaction between LOX and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), a potent growth factor abundant in bone, the effect of LOX on TGF-beta1 signaling, and its potential mechanism. The specific binding between mature LOX and mature TGF-beta1 was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase pulldown assay in vitro. Both proteins were colocalized in the extracellular matrix in an osteoblastic cell culture system, and the binding complex was identified in the mineral-associated fraction of bone matrix. Furthermore, LOX suppressed TGF-beta1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation likely through its amine oxidase activity. The data indicate that LOX binds to mature TGF-beta1 and enzymatically regulates its signaling in bone and thus may play an important role in bone maintenance and remodeling.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) are at high risk of life-threatening aortic dissections. The condition is caused by mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin-1, an essential component in the formation of elastic fibers. While experimental findings in animal models of the disease have shown the involvement of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)- and angiotensin II-dependent pathways, alterations in the vascular extracellular matrix (ECM) may also play a role in the onset and progression of the aortic disease. Lysyl oxidases (LOX) are extracellular enzymes, which initiates the formation of covalent cross-linking of collagens and elastin, thereby contributing to the maturation of the ECM. Here we have explored the role of LOX in the formation of aortic aneurysms in MFS. We show that aortic tissue from MFS patients and MFS mouse model (Fbn1C1039G/+) displayed enhanced expression of the members of the LOX family, LOX and LOX-like 1 (LOXL1), and this is associated with the formation of mature collagen fibers. Administration of a LOX inhibitor for 8 weeks blocked collagen accumulation and aggravated elastic fiber impairment, and these effects correlated with the induction of a strong and rapidly progressing aortic dilatation, and with premature death in the more severe MFS mouse model, Fbn1mgR/mgR, without any significant effect on wild type animals. This detrimental effect occurred preferentially in the ascending portion of the aorta, with little or no involvement of the aortic root, and was associated to an overactivation of both canonical and non-canonical TGF-β signaling pathways. The blockade of angiotensin II type I receptor with losartan restored TGF-β signaling activation, normalized elastic fiber impairment and prevented the aortic dilatation induced by LOX inhibition in Fbn1C1039G/+ mice. Our data indicate that LOX enzymes and LOX-mediated collagen accumulation play a critical protective role in aneurysm formation in MFS.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 05/2015; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2015.05.008 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epithelial tumor metastasis is preceded by an accumulation of collagen cross-links that heighten stromal stiffness and stimulate the invasive properties of tumor cells. However, the biochemical nature of collagen cross-links in cancer is still unclear. Here, we postulated that epithelial tumorigenesis is accompanied by changes in the biochemical type of collagen cross-links. Utilizing resected human lung cancer tissues and a p21CIP1/WAF1-deficient, K-rasG12D-expressing murine metastatic lung cancer model, we showed that, relative to normal lung tissues, tumor stroma contains higher levels of hydroxylysine aldehyde-derived collagen cross-links (HLCCs) and lower levels of lysine aldehyde-derived cross-links (LCCs), which are the predominant types of collagen cross-links in skeletal tissues and soft tissues, respectively. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in tumor cells showed that lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), which hydroxylates telopeptidyl lysine residues on collagen, shifted the tumor stroma toward a high-HLCC, low-LCC state, increased tumor stiffness, and enhanced tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Together, our data indicate that LH2 enhances the metastatic properties of tumor cells and functions as a regulatory switch that controls the relative abundance of biochemically distinct types of collagen cross-links in the tumor stroma.Journal of Clinical Investigation 02/2015; 125(3). DOI:10.1172/JCI74725 · 13.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heart failure, the leading cause of hospitalization of elderly patients, is correlated with myocardial fibrosis (ie, deposition of excess extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen). A key regulator of collagen homeostasis is lysyl oxidase (LOX), an enzyme responsible for cross-linking collagen fibers. Our objective was to ameliorate age-related myocardial fibrosis by disrupting collagen cross-linking through inhibition of LOX. The nonreversible LOX inhibitor β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) was administered by osmotic minipump to 38-week-old C57BL/6J male mice for 2 weeks. Sirius Red staining of myocardial cross sections revealed a reduction in fibrosis, compared with age-matched controls (5.84 ± 0.30% versus 10.17 ± 1.34%) (P < 0.05), to a level similar to that of young mice at 8 weeks (4.9 ± 1.2%). BAPN significantly reduced COL1A1 mRNA, compared with age-matched mice (3.5 ± 0.3-fold versus 15.2 ± 4.9-fold) (P < 0.05), suggesting that LOX is involved in regulation of collagen synthesis. In accord, fibrotic factor mRNA expression was reduced after BAPN. There was also a novel increase in Ly6C expression by resident macrophages. By interrupting collagen cross-linking by LOX, the BAPN treatment reduced myocardial fibrosis. A novel observation is that BAPN treatment modulated the transforming growth factor-β pathway, collagen synthesis, and the resident macrophage population. This is especially valuable in terms of potential therapeutic targeting of collagen regulation and thereby age-related myocardial fibrosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.American Journal Of Pathology 03/2015; 185(3):631-42. DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.11.009 · 4.60 Impact Factor