Combined alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 analysis to identify dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease
ABSTRACT Identification of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease represents a major challenge for both clinicians and pathologists. Clear diagnosis of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease is sometimes not possible with biopsies remaining "indefinite for dysplasia." Recent studies have identified molecular alterations in colitis-associated cancers, including increased protein levels of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, p53, p16 and bcl-2. In order to analyze the potential diagnostic use of these parameters in biopsies from inflammatory bowel disease, a tissue microarray was manufactured from colons of 54 patients with inflammatory bowel disease composed of 622 samples with normal mucosa, 78 samples with inflammatory activity, 6 samples with low-grade dysplasia, 12 samples with high-grade dysplasia, and 66 samples with carcinoma. In addition, 69 colonoscopic biopsies from 36 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (28 low-grade dysplasia, 8 high-grade dysplasia, and 33 indefinite for dysplasia) were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry for alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, p53, p16 and bcl-2 was performed on both tissue microarray and biopsies. p53 and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase showed the most discriminating results, being positive in most cancers (77.3% and 80.3%) and dysplasias (94.4% and 94.4%) but only rarely in nonneoplastic epithelium (1.6% and 9.4%; P < .001). Through combining the best discriminators, p53 and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, a stronger distinction between neoplastic tissues was possible. Of all neoplastic lesions, 75.8% showed a coexpression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase and p53, whereas this was found in only 4 of 700 nonneoplastic samples (0.6%). alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 coexpression was also found in 10 of 33 indefinite for dysplasia biopsies (30.3 %), suggesting a possible neoplastic transformation in these cases. Progression to dysplasia or carcinoma was observed in 3 of 10 p53/alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase-positive, indefinite-for-dysplasia cases, including 1 of 7 cases without and 2 of 3 cases with p53 mutation. It is concluded that combined alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 analysis may represent a helpful tool to confirm dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease.
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ABSTRACT: Long-standing inflammatory bowel disease is associated with increased risk of developing colorectal adenocarcinoma. Significant intra- and inter-observers' variability exists in histologic interpretation of dysplasia in surveillance biopsies. In this study, we evaluated the utility of a panel of immunohistochemical markers in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasia. We reviewed 39 colectomy specimens with inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasia. In these 39 cases, we identified 172 foci of interest (5 normal, 58 negative for dysplasia, 15 indefinite for dysplasia, 59 low-grade dysplasia, 18 high-grade dysplasia, and 17 invasive adenocarcinoma). They were subjected to immunohistochemistry for TP53 and CK7. Logistic regression was used to evaluate their association with the presence of dysplasia. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal cutoffs and assess the diagnostic performance of TP53 and CK7. Both TP53 nuclear staining and CK7 immunoreactivity gradually increased in the progression of inflammatory bowel disease-associated neoplasia (P<0.0001). CK7 immunoreactivity increased along with the increase of inflammation severity (P=0.0002) as well as reactive changes (P=0.04) in the colonic mucosa. But TP53 nuclear staining was independent of either feature. When both TP53>8% and CK7>30% as identified from logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to diagnose dysplasia, the specificity achieved as high as 95%. When either TP53>8% or CK7>30% was used to diagnose dysplasia, the sensitivity achieved was 82%. Our results suggested that a combination of CK7 and TP53 immunohistochemistry may be helpful in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease-associated dysplasia in difficult cases.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 26 July 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.133.Modern Pathology 07/2013; DOI:10.1038/modpathol.2013.133 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The histologic examination of endoscopic biopsies or resection specimens remains a key step in the work-up of affected inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and can be used for diagnosis and differential diagnosis, particularly in the differentiation of UC from CD and other non-IBD related colitides. The introduction of new treatment strategies in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) interfering with the patients' immune system may result in mucosal healing, making the pathologists aware of the impact of treatment upon diagnostic features. The European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly elaborated a consensus to establish standards for histopathology diagnosis in IBD. The consensus endeavors to address: (i) procedures required for a proper diagnosis, (ii) features which can be used for the analysis of endoscopic biopsies, (iii) features which can be used for the analysis of surgical samples, (iv) criteria for diagnosis and differential diagnosis, and (v) special situations including those inherent to therapy. Questions that were addressed include: how many features should be present for a firm diagnosis? What is the role of histology in patient management, including search for dysplasia? Which features if any, can be used for assessment of disease activity? The statements and general recommendations of this consensus are based on the highest level of evidence available, but significant gaps remain in certain areas. © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reservedJournal of Crohn s and Colitis 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.crohns.2013.06.001 · 3.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Context.-Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a long-standing chronic active inflammatory process in the bowel with increased risk for the development of colorectal carcinoma. Several molecular events involved in chronic active inflammatory processes contribute to multistage progression of human cancer development, including reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, aberrant arachidonic acid metabolites and cytokines/growth factors, and immune dysfunction. These molecular events in IBD lead to genetic abnormality and promote aberrant cell proliferation, which further lead to epithelial changes encompassing a broad spectrum from inflammation-induced hyperplasia to dysplasia. Objective.-To review the (1) epidemiologic and molecular pathogenesis of the risk for colorectal cancer in IBD, (2) morphologic characterization, biomarker(s), and classification of dysplastic lesions, and (3) clinical management of dysplastic lesions arising in IBD. Data Sources.-The different IBD-related dysplastic lesions are illustrated by using morphology in conjunction with molecular pathways, and the "field cancerization" theory and its potential significance are discussed with a review of the literature. Conclusions.-Patients with IBD are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. The risk of developing carcinoma is related to the extent/duration/activity of the patient's disease. There is no consensus regarding the extent of carcinoma risk associated with IBD; however, all would agree that patients with IBD represent a group at significant risk for developing carcinoma and as such, warrant adequate surveillance and prevention. With better screening modalities and detection/characterization of dysplastic lesions, IBD-associated serrated lesions, and "field cancerization," we will improve our understanding of and approach to risk stratification.Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine 03/2013; 137(3):338-50. DOI:10.5858/arpa.2012-0086-RA · 2.88 Impact Factor