Long QT Syndrome

Current problems in cardiology (Impact Factor: 2.17). 12/2008; 33(11):629-94. DOI: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2008.07.002
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The hereditary Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetic channelopathy with variable penetrance that is associated with increased propensity for polymorphic ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in young individuals with normal cardiac morphology. The diagnosis of this genetic disorder relies on a constellation of electrocardiographic, clinical, and genetic factors. Accumulating data from recent studies indicate that the clinical course of affected LQTS patients is time-dependent and age-specific, demonstrating important gender differences among age groups. Risk assessment should consider age-gender interactions, prior syncopal history, QT-interval duration, and genetic factors. Beta-blockers constitute the mainstay therapy for LQTS, while left cardiac sympathetic denervation and implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator should be considered in patients who remain symptomatic despite beta-blocker therapy. Current and ongoing studies are also evaluating genotype-specific therapies that may reduce the risk for life-threatening cardiac events in high-risk LQTS patients.

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    ABSTRACT: Long QT syndrome is a genetic disorder associated with life threatening ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. This inherited arrhythmic disorder exhibits genetic heterogeneity, incomplete penetrance, and variable expressivity. During the past two decades there have been major advancements in understanding the genotype-phenotype correlations in LQTS. This genotype-phenotype relationship can lead to improved management of LQTS. However, development of genotype-specific or mutation-specific management strategies is very challenging. This review describes the pathophysiology of LQTS, genotype-phenotype correlations, and focuses on the management of LQTS. In general, the treatment of LQTS consists of lifestyle modifications, medical therapy with beta-blockers, device and surgical therapy. We further summarize current data on the efficacy of pharmacological treatment options for the three most prevalent LQTS variants including beta-blockers in LQT1, LQT2 and LQT3, sodium channel blockers and ranolazine for LQT3, potassium supplementation and spironolactone for LQT2, and possibly sex hormone-based therapy for LQT2.
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    ABSTRACT: Background In LQTS, β-blocker therapy is effective in reducing the risk of cardiac events (syncope, aborted cardiac arrest, sudden cardiac death). Limited studies have compared the efficacy of different β-blockers. Objectives The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of different β-blockers in long QT syndrome (LQTS) and in genotype-positive patients with LQT1 and LQT2. Methods The study included 1,530 patients from the Rochester, New York–based LQTS Registry who were prescribed common β-blockers (atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, or nadolol). Time-dependent Cox regression analyses were used to compare the efficacy of different β-blockers with the risk of cardiac events in LQTS. Results Relative to being off β-blockers, the hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for first cardiac events for atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, and nadolol were 0.71 (0.50 to 1.01), 0.70 (0.43 to 1.15) 0.65 (0.46 to 0.90), and 0.51 (0.35 to 0.74), respectively. In LQT1, the risk reduction for first cardiac events was similar among the 4 β-blockers, but in LQT2, nadolol provided the only significant risk reduction (hazard ratio: 0.40 [0.16 to 0.98]). Among patients who had a prior cardiac event while taking β-blockers, efficacy for recurrent events differed by drug (p = 0.004), and propranolol was the least effective compared with the other β-blockers. Conclusions Although the 4 β-blockers are equally effective in reducing the risk of a first cardiac event in LQTS, their efficacy differed by genotype; nadolol was the only β-blocker associated with a significant risk reduction in patients with LQT2. Patients experiencing cardiac events during β-blocker therapy are at high risk for subsequent cardiac events, and propranolol is the least effective drug in this high-risk group.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 09/2014; 64(13):1352–1358. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.05.068 · 15.34 Impact Factor