Article

AIDS: prehistory of HIV-1.

Nature (Impact Factor: 38.6). 11/2008; 455(7213):605-6. DOI: 10.1038/455605a
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The origin of the current AIDS pandemic has been a subject of great interest and speculation. Viral archaeology sheds light on the geography and timescale of the early diversification of HIV-1 in humans.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
59 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is now well established that simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) from chimpanzees (SIVcpz) and gorillas (SIVgor) from west Central Africa are at the origin of HIV-1/AIDS. Apes are also infected with other retroviruses, notably simian T-cell lymphotropic viruses (STLVs) and simian foamy viruses (SFVs), that can be transmitted to humans. We discuss the actual knowledge on SIV, STLV and SFV infections in chimpanzees, gorillas, and bonobos. We especially elaborate on how the recent development of non-invasive methods has allowed us to identify the reservoirs of the HIV-1 ancestors in chimpanzees and gorillas, and increased our knowledge of the natural history of SIV infections in chimpanzees. Multiple cross-species events with retroviruses from apes to humans have occurred, but only one transmission of SIVcpz from chimpanzees in south-eastern Cameroon spread worldwide, and is responsible for the actual HIV pandemic. Frequent SFV transmissions have been recently reported, but no human-to-human transmission has been documented yet. Because humans are still in contact with apes, identification of pathogens in wild ape populations can signal which pathogens may be cause risk for humans, and allow the development of serological and molecular assays with which to detect transmissions to humans. Finally, non-invasive sampling also allows the study of the impact of retroviruses and other pathogens on the health and survival of endangered species such as chimpanzees, gorillas, and bonobos.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 03/2012; 18(6):514-20. · 4.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1. Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are recognized as having significant social, economic and ecological costs, threatening human health, food security, wildlife conservation and biodiversity. We review the processes underlying the emergence of infectious disease, focusing on the similarities and differences between conceptual models of disease emergence and biological invasions in general. 2. Study of the IUCN's list of the world's worst invaders reveals that disease is cited as a driver behind the conservation, medical or economic impact of nearly a quarter of the species on the data base. 3. The emergence of novel diseases in new host species are, in essence, examples of invasions by parasites. Many of the ecological and anthropogenic drivers of disease emergence and classical invasions are also shared, with environmental change and global transport providing opportunities for the introduction and spread of invaders and novel parasites. 4. The phases of disease emergence and biological invasions have many parallels; particularly the early and late phases, where demographic and anthropogenic factors are key drivers. However, there are also differences in the intermediate phases, where host—parasite co-evolution plays a crucial role in determining parasite establishment in novel hosts. 5. Similar opportunities and constraints on control and management occur at the different phases of invasions and disease emergence. However, exploitation of host immune responses offers additional control opportunities through contact control and vaccination against EIDs. We propose that cross-fertilization between the disciplines of disease emergence and invasion biology may provide further insights into their prediction, control and management.
    Functional Ecology 12/2012; 26(6):1275-1287. · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Humans and nonhuman primates are phylogenetically (i.e., genetically) related and share pathogens that can jump from one species to another. The specific strategies of three groups of pathogens for crossing the species barrier among primates will be discussed. In Africa, gorillas and chimpanzees have succumbed for years to simultaneous epizootics (i.e.. "multi-emergence") of Ebola virus in places where they are in contact with Chiropters, which could be animal reservoirs of these viruses. Human epidemics often follow these major outbreaks. Simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) have an ancient history of coevolution and many interspecific exchanges with their natural hosts. Chimpanzee and gorilla SIVs have crossed the species barrier at different times and places, leading to the emergence of HIV-1 and HIV-2. Other retroviruses, such as the Simian T-Lymphotropic Viruses and Foamiviruses, have also a unique ancient or recent history of crossing the species barrier. The identification of gorilla Plasmodium parasites that are genetically close to P. falciparum suggests that gorillas were the source of the deadly human P. falciparum. Nonhuman plasmodium species that can infect humans represent an underestimated risk.
    Current topics in microbiology and immunology 12/2012; · 4.86 Impact Factor