Practical approach to anticoagulation for cardiopulmonary bypass in the patient with congenital prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time.
ABSTRACT Patients with rare, congenital deficiencies of contact proteins (e.g., factor XII, prekallikrein, high-molecular-weight kininogen) present an important challenge with regard to safe anticoagulation during cardiopulmonary bypass. Specifically, activated coagulation time values are obtained with devices that utilize contact protein activators to generate thrombin and assess the efficacy of heparin-mediated antithrombin activation, with an activated coagulation time value of 480 s considered 'safe'. Patients with contact protein deficiencies will routinely have activated coagulation time values that exceed normal baseline values to an unpredictable extent, which, when coupled with heparin administration may well exceed 480 s but still potentially not reflect adequate antithrombin activation. We present the successful management of anticoagulation of a patient with either a prekallikrein or kininogen deficiency during cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery bypass graft surgery with Hepcon-based heparin concentration determinations. This approach, and the other alternatives previously mentioned, can be utilized to safely care for these rare patients in the setting of cardiac surgery.
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ABSTRACT: Patients receiving heparin infusions have an attenuated activated clotting time (ACT) response to heparin given for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We compared patients receiving preoperative heparin (Group H) to those not receiving heparin (REF group) with respect to ACT, high-dose thrombin time (HiTT), and markers of thrombin generation during CPB. Sixty-five consecutive patients (33 Group H, 32 REF group) undergoing elective CPB were evaluated. ACT and HiTT were measured at multiple time points. Plasma levels of thrombin-antithrombin III complex and fibrin monomer were determined at baseline, during CPB, and after protamine administration. Transfusion requirements and postoperative blood loss were measured and compared. ACT values after heparinization increased less in Group H and were significantly lower than those in the REF group (P < 0.01). HiTT values did not differ significantly between the two groups. Blood loss and transfusion requirements were not significantly different between the two groups. Plasma levels of thrombin-antithrombin III complexes and fibrin monomer also did not differ between groups at any time, despite a lower ACT in Group H after heparinization and during CPB. Our data suggest that thrombin formation and activity are not enhanced in patients receiving heparin therapy, despite a diminished ACT response to heparin. The utility of ACT and the threshold values indicative of adequate anticoagulation for CPB are relatively undefined in patients receiving preoperative heparin. HiTT should be investigated as a safe and accurate monitor of anticoagulation for CPB in patients receiving preoperative heparin therapy. Implications: The diminished activated clotting time response to heparin, in patients receiving preoperative heparin therapy, poses difficulties when attempting to provide adequate anticoagulation for cardiopulmonary bypass. Current data suggest that heparin resistance is not observed when high-dose thrombin time is used to monitor anticoagulation and that a lower activated clotting time value in these patients may be safe.Anesthesia & Analgesia 04/2000; 90(4):813-8. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aprotinin is commonly administered in settings involving cardiopulmonary bypass and liver transplantation to decrease peri-operative bleeding. Thrombelastography has been utilized to monitor coagulation in these settings, and aprotinin delays clot initiation, presumably by inhibiting kallikrein; however, aprotinin also inhibits Factor XI (FXI), a contact system protein. Thus, it was hypothesized that celite-activated thrombelastography coagulation kin-etics would be decreased via aprotinin-mediated FXI inhibition. Citrated normal plasma and prekallikrein-deficient (<1% normal activity) plasma were exposed to 0, 200, 400 or 800 kallikrein inhibitory units (KIU)/ml (n = 6 per condition). Samples were recalcified and celite-activated in a thrombelastograph, with clot initiation (R, s) determined. To confirm contact system specificity, additional prekallikrein-deficient samples with 0 or 800 KIU/ml aprotinin were activated with tissue factor (n = 4 per condition). Exposure of celite-activated, normal plasma to aprotinin 0, 200, 400 or 800 KIU/ml resulted in R values of 167 +/- 14, 253 +/- 10, 293 +/- 22 and 349 +/- 21 s, respectively, which were significantly different from one another (P < 0.05). Exposure of celite-activated, prekallikrein-deficient plasma to aprotinin 0, 200, 400 or 800 KIU/ml resulted in R values of 366 +/- 15, 630 +/- 64, 698 +/- 46 and 850 +/- 47 s, respectively, which were significantly different from one another (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in R values between tissue factor-activated, prekallikrein-deficient plasma samples with 0 or 800 KIU/ml aprotinin. These data support a role for the inhibition of FXI as the mechanism for aprotinin-mediated delayed contact system clot initiation determined by thrombelastography.Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 02/2006; 50(2):168-72. · 2.36 Impact Factor
- Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia 09/2006; 20(4):580-2. · 1.45 Impact Factor