Cytomegalovirus colitis presenting as massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding in an immunocompetent patient

General Surgery Department, Changi General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore.
Indian Journal of Surgery (Impact Factor: 0.26). 02/2008; 70(1):28-31. DOI: 10.1007/s12262-008-0006-z
Source: PubMed


Cytomegalovirus infection is ubiquitous but often remains asymptomatic in affected patients. Symptomatic cytomegalovirus infection usually occurs in immunocompromised patients- patients who are infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, have received organ transplantations, or are on immunosuppressive therapies. Cytomegalovirus colitis can present with abdominal pain, diarrhea and significant per rectal blood loss. It is a rare entity in immunocompetent patients and can often be missed unless one has a high index of suspicion. We describe a case of CMV colitis in a 78-year-old patient with no known risk factors for immunosuppression who was admitted for respiratory diseases and then subsequently developed transfusion dependent lower gastrointestinal bleeding. She ultimately required surgical resection of her colon. A literature review on CMV colitis, its myriad manifestations and therapeutic outcomes was conducted, with particular emphasis on its occurrence in immunocompetent patients.

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    • "This virus can infect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the anus, with the colon being the most commonly affected organ, and the stomach and small bowel being relatively affected. Additionally, the sigmoid colon and the rectum are the most affected portions of colon.1,5,13,14 The antrum is the most common site affected by CMV in the upper gastrointestinal tract. "
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been recognized as an important common pathogen in immunocompromized patients. This is due to the increasing number of immunosuppressive medications, intensive cancer chemotherapy use, recurrent transplantations, progressively aging population, and the higher number of human immunodeficiency virus infections. Cytomegalovirus infection especially interests the gastrointestinal tract, anywhere, from the mouth to the anus. Namely, the most commonly affected area is the colon, followed by duodenum, stomach, esophagus and small intestine. The most frequent manifestations of CMV colitis are: diarrhea, fever, gastrointestinal bleeding and abdominal pain. We report here the case of an 82-year-old woman, who was treated for non-Hodgkin lymphoma; she was admitted to the emergency department for abdominal pain and diffuse arthralgia, following massive upper- and lower- gastrointestinal bleeding, due to duodenal and colonic ulcers related to CMV infection.
    Infectious disease reports 08/2014; 6(3):5512. DOI:10.4081/idr.2014.5512
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    ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients after undergoing organ transplantation or chemotherapy. We report the case of a 60-year-old immunocompetent Japanese woman who presented with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. She was initially diagnosed as having ischemic colitis with pseudomembranous colitis on the basis of her symptoms, Clostridium difficile antigen positivity, and colonoscopic findings, which showed ulcer formation from the sigmoid colon to rectum. In spite of bowel rest and administration of metronidazole, her symptoms did not improve. On follow-up colonoscopy, ulcerations remained unchanged. Biopsy of the ulceration revealed CMV-infected cells leading to a diagnosis of CMV colitis. CMV colitis is a rare but possible differential diagnosis in immunocompetent patients. We recommend endoscopic biopsy in a case of refractory abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea.
    International Journal of General Medicine 03/2015; 8:97-100. DOI:10.2147/IJGM.S63771
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurs increasingly in critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs). We reported CMV colitis which has rarely been recognized in the ICU patients. Methods CMV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for blood and/or stool samples. Definite diagnosis of CMV colitis required histopathology or CMV immunohistochemical staining of colorectal biopsies. We reviewed ICU patients characterized by positive blood or stool CMV-PCR with colorectal bleeding or water diarrhea. Results We identified 18 patients (biopsy-proved, n = 8; probable cases, n = 10). The most common comorbidities were chronic renal disease, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease. Stool CMV-PCR was positive in 7 of 10 patients (2 of 3 biopsy-proved and 5 of 7 probable cases). Colonoscopy was performed for 15 patients, revealing ulcerative or polypoid lesions. The endoscopists obtained colonic biopsies from 9 patients. Yet, the pathologists reported CMV colitis for 4 patients. Additional 4 patients were confirmed using immunohistochemical stain by the request of clinical physicians. Pseudomembranous colitis was found in 4 patients. Conclusion Diagnosis of CMV colitis seems difficult in clinical practice and need persistent communication between clinicians. The positive stool CMV-PCR result was a useful hint for adding immunohistochemical stain in mucosal biopsies to make a definite diagnosis of CMV colitis.
    Journal of critical care 06/2014; 29(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2014.01.003 · 2.00 Impact Factor

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