Lipid droplet-associated proteins protect renal tubular cells from fatty acid-induced apoptosis.
ABSTRACT Proteinuria is a major cause of tubulointerstitial kidney damage, and free fatty acids bound to albumin are thought to play an important role in its pathogenesis. However, the mechanism whereby proteinuria causes tubulointerstitial damage to the kidney is unclear. Using primary human renal proximal tubular cells, we observed that albumin replete with fatty acids (rBSA) and defatted albumin (dBSA) complexed with linoleic acid (LA) induced significantly more apoptosis than did defatted albumin alone. Oxidative stress was partially involved in apoptotic induction by LA/dBSA but not by rBSA. Administration of fatty acid-bound BSA increased the number of lipid droplets (LDs) and the LD-associated proteins, adipocyte differentiation-related protein and TIP47. LDs are organelles that store esterified fatty acids, and the LD-associated proteins are presumed to facilitate LD formation. Knockdown of adipocyte differentiation-related protein or TIP47 by RNA interference enhanced induction of apoptosis by both rBSA and LA/dBSA. Apoptotic induction was observed similarly when either rBSA or LA/dBSA was applied to only the apical surfaces of polarized LLC-PK1 cells. The present results suggest that LDs and LD-associated proteins have protective effects against apoptosis induced by fatty acid-bound albumin by sequestering free fatty acids. Therapeutic manipulation of these LD-associated proteins could aid in the amelioration of nephritic diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin is an important function of the kidney proximal tubule epithelium. We have measured endocytosis of [125I]-albumin in opossum kidney cells and examined the regulation of this process by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Albumin endocytosis was inhibited by both wortmannin (IC50 6.9 nM) and LY294002 (IC50 6.5 microM) at concentrations that suggested the involvement of PI 3-kinase in its regulation. Recycling rates were unaffected. We transfected OK cells with either a wild-type p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, or a dominant negative form of the p85 subunit (Deltap85) using the LacSwitch expression system. Transfects were screened by immunoblotting with anti-PI 3-kinase antibodies. Under basal conditions, transfects demonstrated no expression of p85 or Deltap85, but expression was briskly induced by treatment of the cells with IPTG (EC50 13.7 microM). Inhibition of PI 3-kinase activity by Deltap85 was confirmed by in vitro kinase assay of anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates from transfected cells stimulated with insulin. Expression of Deltap85 resulted in marked inhibition of albumin endocytosis, predominantly as a result of reduction of the Vmax of the transport process. Expression of p85 had no significant effect on albumin uptake. The results demonstrate that PI 3-kinase regulates an early step in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by kidney proximal tubular cells.Journal of Clinical Investigation 06/1998; 101(10):2140-50. · 12.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Feeding rats with 4 g/kg body weight of sardine oil during 7 or 14 days increases the content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the erythrocyte and hepatic microsomal membranes by 2 to 6%. These membranes show increased susceptibility to the induction of oxidative stress, expressed as lipid peroxidation, when they are exposed to Fe2+-ascorbate and to NADPH-FE3+-ADP, respectively. The results indicate that in order to prevent the increased susceptibility to lipid peroxidation, supplementation with larger amounts of antioxidants may be needed than those required to stabilize the oil.Lipids 10/1989; 24(9):833-5. · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are being used to induce sequence-specific gene silencing in cultured cells to study mammalian gene function. Libraries of siRNAs targeting entire human gene classes can be used to identify genes with specific cellular functions. Here we describe high-throughput siRNA delivery methods to facilitate siRNA library screening experiments with both immortalized and primary cells. We adapted chemical reverse transfection for immortalized adherent cell lines in a 96-well format. The method is fast, robust, and exceptionally effective for many cell types. For primary cells and immortalized cells that are recalcitrant to lipofection-based methods, we developed electropermeabilization (electroporation) conditions that facilitate siRNA delivery to a broad range of cell types, including primary human T-cells, hMSC, NHA, NDHF-Neo, HUVEC, DI TNC1, RPTEC, PC12, and K562 cells. To enable high-throughput electropermeabilization of primary cells, we developed a novel 96-well electroporation device that provides highly efficient and reproducible delivery of siRNAs. The combination of high-throughput chemical reverse transfection and electroporation makes it possible to deliver libraries of siRNAs to virtually any cell type, enabling gene function analysis and discovery on a genome scale.RNA 07/2005; 11(6):985-93. · 5.09 Impact Factor