Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Treatment of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms A Study of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2001-2009
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Minorities in the United States have less access to healthcare system resources, especially preventative treatments. We sought to determine whether racial and sex disparities existed in the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. METHODS: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, hospitalizations for clipping and coiling of intracranial aneurysms from 2001 to 2009 were identified by cross-matching International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes for diagnosis of unruptured aneurysm and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with procedure codes for clipping or coiling of cerebral aneurysms. Demographic information analyzed included age (<50, 50-64, 65-79, and ≥80 years), race (white, black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander), sex, income quartile, primary payer (Medicare, Medicaid, private insurance, self-pay, no charge, other), and Charlson comorbidity index. RESULTS: When compared with patients treated for SAH, those treated for unruptured intracranial aneurysm were significantly more likely to be women (75.0% versus 69.0%; P<0.0001). In all, 9.7% of patients receiving treatment for SAH were self-payers versus 3.0% of patients being treated for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (P<0.0001). In all, 62.2% of patients receiving treatment for SAH were white compared with 76.4% of patients being treated for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (P<0.0001). There was a higher proportion of black, Hispanic, and Asian patients in the SAH treatment group when compared with the unruptured aneurysm treatment group (P<0.0001 for all groups). CONCLUSIONS: When compared with patients undergoing treatment for SAH, patients undergoing surgical and endovascular treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysm are generally from higher socioeconomic strata and are more likely to be insured, women, and white. Future studies are needed to determine the underlying causes and solutions for this disparity.
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ABSTRACT: The Institute of Medicine called attention to the pervasive differences in treatments and outcomes between ethnic groups. We sought to highlight the geographic and racial disparities in access to treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms from 2000 to 2010, registered in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database. Primary outcomes were those patients receiving treatment and the ratio of untreated to treated aneurysms per state. The purpose of this study was to determine if there were geographic and racial disparities in access to treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms based on the NIS. Logistic regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques were used. There were 57 418 patients diagnosed with unruptured aneurysms (mean age 61.4 years, 70.5% females), with 18 231 undergoing treatment. Males (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.71, p<0.0001), Asian (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.96, p=0.003), Hispanic (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.90, p=0.001), African American (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.62, p<0.0001), and patients without insurance (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.87, p<0.0001) were associated with decreased chance of treatment. The opposite was true for lower Charlson Comorbidity Index (OR 3.03, 95% CI 2.71 to 3.39, p<0.0001), coverage by Medicaid (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.23, p=0.012), or private insurance (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.80 to 2.04, p<0.0001), and lower income (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.15 to 1.31, p<0.0001). Significant regional variability was observed among the different states (p=0.006, ANOVA), with Maryland being an outlier. Based on the NIS database, the rate of treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms varies according to sex, race, and region.Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery 08/2013; 6(7). DOI:10.1136/neurintsurg-2013-010884 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Despite decades of study, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) continues to be a serious and significant health problem in the United States and worldwide. The mechanisms contributing to brain injury after SAH remain unclear. Traditionally, most in vivo research has heavily emphasized the basic mechanisms of SAH over the pathophysiological or morphological changes of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH. Unfortunately, the results of clinical trials based on this premise have mostly been disappointing, implicating some other pathophysiological factors, independent of vasospasm, as contributors to poor clinical outcomes. Delayed cerebral vasospasm is no longer the only culprit. In this review, we summarize recent data from both experimental and clinical studies of SAH and discuss the vast array of physiological dysfunctions following SAH that ultimately lead to cell death. Based on the progress in neurobiological understanding of SAH, the terms "early brain injury" and "delayed brain injury" are used according to the temporal progression of SAH-induced brain injury. Additionally, a new concept of the vasculo-neuronal-glia triad model for SAH study is highlighted and presents the challenges and opportunities of this model for future SAH applications.Progress in Neurobiology 09/2013; 115. DOI:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.09.002 · 10.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine racial and socioeconomic disparities in access to primary care among people with chronic conditions. Data for this study were taken from the household component of the 2010 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The analysis primarily focused on adults ≥18 years old. Logistic regressions were conducted among people with chronic conditions to compare primary care attributes between each minority group and their non-Hispanic white counterparts and between individuals with high, above average, or below average socioeconomic status and their low socioeconomic status counterparts, controlling for other individual factors. Racial disparities were found in having usual source of care (USC), USC provider type, and USC location. However, no disparities were found in ease of contacting or getting to USC as well as the services received. Furthermore, very limited socioeconomic disparities were found after controlling for other individual characteristics, in particular race and insurance status. More efforts need to be devoted to racial/ethnic minorities with chronic conditions to improve their access to continuous and high-quality primary care.The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 03/2014; 27(2):189-198. DOI:10.3122/jabfm.2014.02.130246 · 1.85 Impact Factor