Meta-analysis of major depressive disorder relapse and recurrence with second-generation antidepressants
ABSTRACT This meta-analysis reviewed data on the efficacy and effectiveness of second-generation antidepressants for preventing major depression relapse and recurrence during continuation and maintenance phases of treatment, respectively.
MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were searched for the period of January 1980 through April 2007 for reviews, randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and observational studies on the topic. Two persons independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles using a structured data abstraction form to ensure consistency in appraisal and data extraction.
Four comparative trials and 23 placebo-controlled trials that addressed relapse or recurrence prevention were included. Results of comparative trials have not demonstrated statistically significant differences between duloxetine and paroxetine, fluoxetine and sertraline, fluvoxamine and sertraline, and trazodone and venlafaxine. Pooled data for the class of second-generation antidepressants compared with placebo suggested a relatively large effect size that persists over time. For preventing both relapse and recurrence, the number of patients needed to treat is five (95% confidence interval of 4 to 6). Differences in the length of open-label treatment before randomization, drug type, and trial duration did not affect pooled estimates of relapse rates. Across all trials, 7% of patients randomly assigned to receive active treatment and 5% of patients randomly assigned to receive a placebo discontinued treatment because of adverse events.
This review demonstrates the overall benefits of continuation- and maintenance-phase treatment of major depression with second-generation antidepressants and emphasizes the need for additional studies of comparative differences among drugs.
SourceAvailable from: Claudi L H Bockting[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly disabling and typically runs a recurrent course. Knowledge about prevention of relapse and recurrence is crucial to the long-term welfare of people who suffer from this disorder. This article provides an overview of the current evidence for the prevention of relapse and recurrence using psychological interventions. We first describe a conceptual framework to preventive interventions based on: acute treatment; continuation treatment, or; prevention strategies for patients in remission. In brief, cognitive-behavioral interventions, delivered during the acute phase, appear to have an enduring effect that protects patients against relapse and perhaps others from recurrence following treatment termination. Similarly, continuation treatment with either cognitive therapy or perhaps interpersonal psychotherapy appears to reduce risk for relapse and maintenance treatment appears to reduce risk for recurrence. Preventive relapse strategies like preventive cognitive therapy or mindfulness based cognitive therapy (MBCT) applied to patients in remission protects against subsequent relapse and perhaps recurrence. There is some preliminary evidence of specific mediation via changing the content or the process of cognition. Continuation CT and preventive interventions started after remission (CBT, MBCT) seem to have the largest differential effects for individuals that need them the most. Those who have the greatest risk for relapse and recurrence including patients with unstable remission, more previous episodes, potentially childhood trauma, early age of onset. These prescriptive indications, if confirmed in future research, may point the way to personalizing prevention strategies. Doing so, may maximize the efficiency with which they are applied and have the potential to target the mechanisms that appear to underlie these effects. This may help make this prevention strategies more efficacious.Clinical Psychology Review 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.cpr.2015.02.003 · 7.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The acute efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established; however their role in longer-term prevention of recurrence remains unconfirmed. This study aims at examining: the prophylactic efficacy of four commonly used SSRIs in MDD in a naturalistic setting with long-term follow-up, the effect of concomitant cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and the predictors of outcome. In a prospective cohort study, 387 patients who either remitted or responded following treatment with four different SSRIs-fluoxetine, escitalopram, sertraline and paroxetine-were followed up over several years. During an average follow-up period of 34.5 months, 76.5% of patients experienced MDD recurrence. Escitalopram and fluoxetine showed a numerically higher prophylactic efficacy than paroxetine and sertraline but the difference was statistically insignificant. The prophylactic efficacy for SSRI-only treatment was limited, with a recurrence rate of 82.0%, compared to 59.0% of patient recurrence rate in concomitant Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The relatively small size of the CBT group and the lack of randomization may undermine the extrapolation of its findings to clinical practice. Nevertheless, the study preliminary data may help in defining the clinical utility of antidepressants and CBT in the prophylaxis from MDD recurrence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.Psychiatry Research 11/2014; 225(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2014.11.022 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Less than 50% of patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) reach symptomatic remission with their initial antidepressant medication (ADM). There are currently no objective measures with which to reliably predict which individuals will achieve remission to ADMs.01/2015; 29(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ebiom.2014.12.002