An FGF autocrine loop initiated in second heart field mesoderm regulates morphogenesis at the arterial pole of the heart.
ABSTRACT In order to understand how secreted signals regulate complex morphogenetic events, it is crucial to identify their cellular targets. By conditional inactivation of Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 and overexpression of the FGF antagonist sprouty 2 in different cell types, we have dissected the role of FGF signaling during heart outflow tract development in mouse. Contrary to expectation, cardiac neural crest and endothelial cells are not primary paracrine targets. FGF signaling within second heart field mesoderm is required for remodeling of the outflow tract: when disrupted, outflow myocardium fails to produce extracellular matrix and TGFbeta and BMP signals essential for endothelial cell transformation and invasion of cardiac neural crest. We conclude that an autocrine regulatory loop, initiated by the reception of FGF signals by the mesoderm, regulates correct morphogenesis at the arterial pole of the heart. These findings provide new insight into how FGF signaling regulates context-dependent cellular responses during development.
Article: System for inducible expression of cre-recombinase from the Foxa2 locus in endoderm, notochord, and floor plate.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We targeted the reverse tetracycline controlled transactivator (rtTA) to the Foxa2 locus (Foxa2(ITA)) to generate a system for regulating Cre-recombinase activity within Foxa2 expression domains, including the endoderm, notochord, and floor plate of early mouse embryos. The use of an internal ribosomal entry site to obtain rtTA expression preserves Foxa2 function of the targeted allele. Cre activity with this system reflects the level of endogenous Foxa2 activity and is also tightly controlled by doxycycline. The location of Cre activity within the broader Foxa2 expression domain can be restricted by altering the timing of doxycycline administration. Isolated floor plate expression can be obtained in this manner. This system will provide a useful tool for manipulating gene expression in endoderm, notochord, and floor plate, all of which are tissues with important structural and patterning functions during embryogenesis.Developmental Dynamics 05/2007; 236(4):1085-92. · 2.54 Impact Factor
Article: Murine cutaneous mastocytosis and epidermal melanocytosis induced by keratinocyte expression of transgenic stem cell factor.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The growth and differentiation of mast cells and melanocytes require stem cell factor (SCF), the ligand for the kit receptor tyrosine kinase. SCF may exist as a membrane-bound or soluble molecule. Abnormalities of the SCF-kit signaling pathway, with increased local concentrations of soluble SCF, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the human disease cutaneous mastocytosis, but have not yet been shown to play a causal role. To investigate both the potential of SCF to cause mastocytosis and its role in epidermal melanocyte homeostasis, we targeted the expression of SCF to epidermal keratinocytes in mice with two different transgenes controlled by the human keratin 14 promoter. The transgenes contained cDNAs that either produced SCF, which can exist in both membrane-bound and soluble forms, or SCF, which remains essentially membrane bound. Murine epidermal keratinocyte expression of membrane-bound/ soluble SCF reproduced the phenotype of human cutaneous mastocytosis, with dermal mast cell infiltrates and epidermal hyperpigmentation, and caused the maintenance of a population of melanocytes in the interadnexal epidermis, an area where melanocytes and melanin are found in human skin but where they are not typically found in murine skin. Expression of membrane-bound SCF alone resulted in epidermal melanocytosis and melanin production, but did not by itself cause mastocytosis. We conclude, first, that a phenotype matching that of human mastocytosis can be produced in mice by keratinocyte overproduction of soluble SCF, suggesting a potential cause of this disease. Second, we conclude that keratinocyte expression of membrane-bound SCF results in the postnatal maintenance of epidermal melanocytes in mice. Since the resulting animals have skin that more closely approximates human skin than do normal mice, their study may be more relevant to human melanocyte biology than the study of skin of normal mice.Journal of Experimental Medicine 06/1998; 187(10):1565-73. · 13.85 Impact Factor