POWDER MICROSCOPY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF AYURVEDIC SINGLE DRUG -APAMARGA (ACHYRANTHUS ASPERA LINN.)
ABSTRACT Standardization of the crude powdered drug of Ap am arg a-(Achyranthus asp era Linn.) family Amaranth ac e ae is done. Apamarga being astringent in property is recommended to infants in colic pains and used in gonorrhea and pneumonia. The microscopic and phytochemical studies are essential to authentify this Ayurvedic preparation available in the market under various trade names. Considering this need powder microscopy, preliminary phytochemical tests, TLC and other parameters viz. foaming index, swelling index, p H, extractives, fluorescence analysis were carried out for standardization.
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ABSTRACT: The whole plant of Achyranthes aspera has been used as remedy for a number of diseases such as dropsy, strangury, cough, kidney stones, dysentery and bowel complaints, According to traditional practice, a kheer prepared from the seeds of this plant is used to treat brain disorders. An attempt was made to fix the macroscopical, microscopical parameters of the leaf quantitative microscopy, physical constants, and behaviour of the powder with chemical reagents and preliminary qualitative phytochemical studies of Achyranthes aspera were investigated. The phytochemical tests revealed the presence of sterols, flavanoids tannins and carbohydrates.Ancient science of life. 07/2006; 26(1-2):1-5.
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ABSTRACT: The effect of Achyranthes aspera on lipid peroxidation were studied in rats fed with Sesame Oil. Increase in the levels of LPO in sesame oil treated groups returned towards normalcy in the plant extract treated groups revealing the antioxidant potential of the plant. Phytochemical studies revealed the presence of secondary metabolites. According to the results obtained Achyranthes aspera inhibited Ferrous Ascorbate stimulated LPO.Ancient science of life. 07/2007; 27(1):6-10.
- Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology 11/1965; 9(4):185-8.
J.DRA.S.Val. XXIX, No.3-4, July.-Dec"OB
POWDER MICROSCOPY AND
SINGLE DRUG - APAMARGA (ACHYRANTHUS
STUDIES OF AYURVEDIC
A.D., Holel, Y.M. Dhanorkar~A.M. Gurav' B.P. Dhar'and G.S. Lavekar'
(Approved on 19-11-08)
and used in gonorrhea
studies are essential
tests,TLC and other parameters
carried out for standardization.
Ap am arg a-
is done. Apamarga
to infantsin colic pains
Achyranthes aspera Linn., known as
in Ayurveda, belongs to plant
perennial herb growing upto one metre in
height and is found throughout
an altitude of2 J 00 m. Anonymous
The entire plant isconsidered as stomachic,
laxative, expectorant, depurative, sudorific,
cough, bronchitis asthma, skin diseases and
Decoction of the whole plant is reported to
be effective in renal
anasarca and leprosy.
Amaranthaceae.It is an erect,
It is mainly used in
The plant contains important alkaloids
- achyranthineand betaine. The roots of
the plant contain glycoside while seeds and
fruits possess saponin A & Band
(1970), Sharma et al. (2000).
C & D
I. Herbarium Assistant, 2. Senior Research Fellow, 3. Research Officer & corresponding
author, Regisional Research Institute (Ayurveda), Kothrud, Pune-38, 4. Research Officer
& 5. Director, Central Council for Research in Ayurveda and Siddha New Delhi-l l0058
ADHole, VM. Dhanorkaret al.
The plantis reportedto be diuretic,
(1965) . The
Gambhir (1965),Gambhirct aJ
plant is oneof the
Ap amarg a s iddha
Sharma et al. (2000).
prepared from whole plant are
Ap amarg adi
(1994) . In the past few years-
(1990)] of this plant has also
by Krishnaveniand Thakur
However,informations are not availableon
the powder microscopy and phytochemical
of the whole plant of Achyranthus
The present communication deals with
the powder microscopy
of Ap amarg a - whole
essent iaIfor the standard ization of the single
Healthygrowing plants of
Achyranthus aspen} Linn.were collected
from the Garden.
no. 7 J was prepared
Institute Pune. Herbariumwith
ill the herbariumsection of the institute. For
furtheranalysis,the collectedplants were
thoroughly washedand shadedried.The
dried plants were cut into small pieces. The
materialwas then coarselypowderedwith
the help ofa blender,sievedthrougha 60-
meshsieveand usedfor microscopyand
by WHO (2000) for medicinal
as perthe procedure-
as per the procedure
either by soakinga pinch offine powder in
distilledwaterfor 1 hr. and stainingwith
saffraninfor 2-4 minutesor treatingwith
solutionof chloralhydrate for
1 hr and
add ition of 1-2 drops of cone. Hel.Figures
were drawnwith the help
cameralucida.tests of the
The Pharmacognosticalstudiesof the
plant compilethe followingmacroscopical
Fine powderof Achyranthus aspera Linn.
appears light greenin colorand powdery
in texture.It is slightly astringentin taste
withoutany characteristic odour,
The observationsrecorded frompowder
microscopic studiesare shownin [PlateI:
Fig. (a - I) andPlate2: Fig. m - t]. The
powdereddrug observedunder microscope,
showedclumps of roundedto squarish thin-
walled parenchymatous cells [PlateI: Fig.
(a, b, c)]. Several piecesof epidermalcells
were noted in surface view[Plate I: Fig.
eg.]. Groupsof polygonal cells, belonging
to cork regionwerealsoobserved in
surfaceview[Plate I: Fig. d]. Fragment
of thepowdershow upperepidermis
I: Fig. fl. A few
groups of small,angular and thin-walled
cells belongingto phloem tissue were also
found to be present [Plate1: Fig. h]. It also
exhibitedgroupsof conductingcells, e.g.
xylem fibres,vessels mainly bearingspiral
thickenings[Plate I: Fig. i, k,j]. Fragments
of fibres and vesselsbearing pitted and
spiral thickenings were also noted[Plate
I: Fig. (I)], [Plate 2: Fig. t] along with group
of vascularelements[Plate 2: Fig.pl.
2: Fig. rn,n].Trichornesare abundantin
numberbut more or less warted. The entire
as well as broken trichomes are mostly two
celled,the basal cellsmaller and apical
elongated pointed cells[Plate2: Fig. q).
AnOmOC)1ic stomatawith straight-walled
epidermal cells were seen [Plate 2: Fig.o].
Many isolatedsphaeraphidesand prismatic
crystals of calciumoxalate wereseen
[Plate 2: rig.r, s].
Phytochemicalanalysis of the drug
with respectto foaming index,swelling
index, pH and extractivevalues of drug are
presentedin Table - l.Foamingindexof
wholeplant was found to be >100, where
as swellingindex was observed to be zero.
The averagepH value 01'2% (\\/V) aqueous
5.63 i.e . acidicextractwasin nature.
Amongstthe extractivevalues, percentage
followedby e xtr act ive s of
(3.53%), Ethyl alcohol
and PetroleumEther (0.20%); lowest being
respectto behaviourof differentchemical
extract under fluorescence
360 nm are recorded
light 254 nm and
ill Table- II. The
A.D. Hole, VM. Dhanorkaret al.
Plate1: Apamarga -Achyranthusaspera Linn.· Whole plant
.-- - ...
Powder microscopy of whole plant:
ab.c.Group of parenchymatous cells.
e.g. Epidermal cells in surface view.
f.T.S. of leaf'- fragment.
h.Pholem parenchyma cells.
j.l.Fragments of vessel element bearing spiral, pitted thickening.
Plate 2 : Apamarga- Achyranthus aspera Linn. - Whole plant
Powder microscopy of whole plant:
m.n. Epidermal cells in surface view with trichomes.
o. Epidermal cells with stomata.
p. Vascular elements.
q.Loose entire, fragmented trichomes,
r. Loose sphaeraphides of calcium oxalate crystals.
s.Loose prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate
A.D. Hole, V M. Dhanorkar et al.
Acetone and Methanol displayed yellowish
green and red colour under short and long
extract showed dark citrine and red colour
in short and long uv. The extracts of
Benzene, Petroleum Ether and Carbon tetra
chlorideshowedgreenish yellow, light
Primrose and light greenish yellow in short
and scarlet in long UV, respectively. Under
ordinary light majorityof the extracts of
Ethyl alcohol,Chloroform,Acetone and
Methanolshowed Herbage green colour
while Benzene,PetroleumEther and
Carbon tetra chlorideexhibited Sulphur
yellow color respectively. Similarly, Ethyl
acetate and Water extracts showed Citrine
and Sienna colour.
Analysis of preliminary phytochemical
tests showedthe presence of Steroid,
Alkaloid in the drug. Tests of Flavonoid,
Tannin, Starch and Protein were found to
be negative (Table - III).
Behaviour of powdereddrug with
To evaluatethe behaviourof
powdereddrug with different chemical
reagents, a pinch of powder was placed in
test tubes containingdifferent reagents.
Significant differencein the behaviour of
powder was observed. Powder floated on
surface with the treatment of Concentrated
Sulphuric acid, Hydrochloric acid and Nitric
acid and settled down immediately with
Glacial acetic acid and 5% Ferric chloride
respectively. Powder remained suspended
with 5% Iodine and Sodiumhydroxide
solutions (Table - IV).
Thin Layer chromatographyStudy
The cold extractswere loadedon
precoated silica gel 60 F 254 (Merck) plate
using Toulene : Ethyl acetate (8:2) as solvent
Petroleumether extractswere used for
Maximumnumber of spots
produced by Acetone extract followed by
six spots in Chloroformand Petroleum
ether extracts. Observations and Rfvalues
are tabulatedin Table - V.
TLC Profile of Acetone extract of Achyranthusaspera
solvent system: Toluene: Ethyl acetate (8 :2)
TLC Profile of Acetone extract of Achyranthus aspera (Whole plant)
Solvent system:Toluene: Ethyl acetate (8 : 2)
TLC Profile of Chloroform
TLC Profile of Pet ether
TLC Profile of Acetone
A.D. Hole, VM. Dhanorkaretal.
Ethyl alcohol extractive
8. Carbon tetrachlorideextractive 0.18%
Ethyl acetate extractive
10. Acetone extractive 0.23%
12.Distilled water extractive 7.9%
Table n :
Powder drugshowingfluorescencebehaviour of different extracts
254 nm360 nm
Sulphur yellow Greenish yellow
Herbage greenDark citrineRed
5.Carbon tetra chloride Sulphur yellow Light greenish yellow
Herbagegreen Yellowish greenRed
Yellowish green Red
SiennaCitrinegreen Dark brick
POWDER MICROSOPHY AND ...
Powderdrugshowing results of preliminaryphytochemicaltests
MucilageSwelling in water+ve
a.) Mayer's reagent +ve
b.) Wagner's reagent
Behaviourof powdered drug with differentchemicalreagents
I.Sulphuric acid (conc.)
Powder floats on surface initially, settles after shaking,
Powder floats on surface, settles down on shaking, color
Powder floats on surface initially, later on remains
Powder settles immediately
after shaking, color light yellow
and remains settled even
Powder remains suspended, color red
Powder settles immediately, color orange
Powder suspended, color yellowish
Powder settles, color light yellow
Nitric acid (cone.)
4.Glacial acetic acid
Iodine solution (5%)
Ferric chloride (5%)
Sodium hydroxide (5%)
Potassium hydroxide (5%)
A.D. Hole, VM. Dhanorkar et a/.
Rf values of Achyranthusaspera Linn. with different
Pet Ether extract [Toulene:
Ethycetate(8: 2 )]
Chloroformextract [Toulene :Acetone extract [Toulene :
Ethyl acetate (8: 2 )] Ethyl acetate (8: 2 »)
Orange (L)0.50.25Orange (L)
0.50 Green (L, S) 0.5870.34 Orange (L)
Genuinenessor authenticityof any
herbal crude drug needs to be standardized
using approved parametersto avoid
adulterationsin the process of medicine
preparations. The present investigationis
an attempt to analyze the crude drug of
the whole plant Apamarga-Achyranthus
aspera Linn. Such type of work can be
utilized for identification and authenticity of
the drug required for the standardization
of the plant.
The authors are thankful to Director
facilities for the
(1985): The Wealth ofIndia.
Raw Materials (CSIR), New Delhi,
used in Ayurveda, Central Council fell' Research in Ayurveda and Siddha, New
Delhi. p. 115.
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Santh Rani Thakur. (2006): Pharmacognostical
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Berlin Heidelberg, New York.
A laboratory handbook, 2 nd
14 : 63.
SS, Sanyal AK, Chowdhary
aspera Linn. - A preliminary
NK. (1965): Pharmacological
report. Indian J. Physio!. Pharmacal
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ofKerala, PharmacognosyUnit, Ayurveda college, Thiruvananthapuram
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BotanicalResearch Institute, Lucknow, p.6-7.
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AD. Hole, VM Dbenorker
Linn. - A preliminary
et al. (1965):Pharmacological study of Achyranthusaspera
report, Indian J. Physio. Phannacol., 9: 185.
14. S. C. Varshaney
N. K. Tyagi (1991):
Journal of National
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Integrated Medical Association33 (5) : 7 - 9.
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seeds of Achyranthus
S. Rangaswami,(1970): Structure of Saponins A & B from the
aspera Linn., Phytochemistry 9 : 409.
16. World Health Organization,
medicinal plant materials, AITBS Publishers and Distributors,
New Delhi. 1:46.
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