Biofunctionalization of Biomaterials for Accelerated in Situ Endothelialization: A Review

Centre of Nanotechnology, Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, UCL Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
Biomacromolecules (Impact Factor: 5.75). 11/2008; 9(11):2969-79. DOI: 10.1021/bm800681k
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The higher patency rates of cardiovascular implants, including vascular bypass grafts, stents, and heart valves are related to their ability to inhibit thrombosis, intimal hyperplasia, and calcification. In native tissue, the endothelium plays a major role in inhibiting these processes. Various bioengineering research strategies thereby aspire to induce endothelialization of graft surfaces either prior to implantation or by accelerating in situ graft endothelialization. This article reviews potential bioresponsive molecular components that can be incorporated into (and/or released from) biomaterial surfaces to obtain accelerated in situ endothelialization of vascular grafts. These molecules could promote in situ endothelialization by the mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) from the bone marrow, encouraging cell-specific adhesion (endothelial cells (EC) and/or EPC) to the graft and, once attached, by controlling the proliferation and differentiation of these cells. EC and EPC interactions with the extracellular matrix continue to be a principal source of inspiration for material biofunctionalization, and therefore, the latest developments in understanding these interactions will be discussed.

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Available from: Gavin Jell, Jan 31, 2014
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    • "Similarly a bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and insulin growth factor (IGF) can be immobilized to assist in the differentiation of osteoblast cells [70]. Furthermore vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can be immobilized on the matrix to enhance endothelial cell adhesion for vascular tissue engineering [71]. Several excellent recent reviews describe the function of many biologically relevant short peptide groups, growth factors, and cytokines [46, 68, 70, 71]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.
    Mediators of Inflammation 05/2014; 2014(9):192790. DOI:10.1155/2014/192790 · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    • "Bioactive scaffolds employed as a support for engineered tissue endothelialization are fabricated with synthetic or natural polymers and possess several properties useful for facilitating neovascularization [46]. Favorable materials might be also biofunctionalized in order to accelerate in situ endothelialization and provide a specific microenvironment mimicking the natural properties of the native tissue [47]. Examples of molecules that can be conjugated to the polymer material aimed at improving vessel formation are usually natural components of the extracellular matrix or their functional domains. "
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    ABSTRACT: The production of a functional cardiac tissue to be transplanted in the injured area of the infarcted myocardium represents a challenge for regenerative medicine. Most cell-based grafts are unviable because of inadequate perfusion; therefore, prevascularization might be a suitable approach for myocardial tissue engineering. To this aim, cells with a differentiation potential towards vascular and cardiac muscle phenotypes have been cocultured in 2D or 3D appropriate scaffolds. In addition to these basic approaches, more sophisticated strategies have been followed employing mixed-cell sheets, microvascular modules, and inosculation from vascular explants. Technologies exerting spatial control of vascular cells, such as topographical surface roughening and ordered patterning, represent other ways to drive scaffold vascularization. Finally, microfluidic devices and bioreactors exerting mechanical stress have also been employed for high-throughput scaling-up production in order to accelerate muscle differentiation and speeding the endothelialization process. Future research should address issues such as how to optimize cells, biomaterials, and biochemical components to improve the vascular integration of the construct within the cardiac wall, satisfying the metabolic and functional needs of the myocardial tissue.
    Stem cell International 01/2014; 2014:434169. DOI:10.1155/2014/434169 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    • "Despite the clinical success of large diameter (>6 mm) vascular graft [3], the patency rates of small diameter (<6 mm) vascular graft are very poor [4-7], which largely limit their application in coronary and peripheral vascular bypass graft procedures. As thrombosis at the blood-material interface is the predominant cause of the failure of small diameter vascular graft [8], it is necessary to develop a new type of small diameter vascular graft with enhanced blood compatibility [9,10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of deaths worldwide and the arterial reconstructive surgery remains the treatment of choice. Although large diameter vascular grafts have been widely used in clinical practices, there is an urgent need to develop a small diameter vascular graft with enhanced blood compatibility. Herein, we fabricated a small diameter vascular graft with submicron longitudinally aligned topography, which mimicked the tunica intima of the native arterial vessels and were tested in Sprague--Dawley (SD) rats. Vascular grafts with aligned and smooth topography were prepared by electrospinning and were connected to the abdominal aorta of the SD rats to evaluate their blood compatibility. Graft patency and platelet adhesion were evaluated by color Doppler ultrasound and immunofluorescence respectively. We observed a significant higher patency rate (p = 0.021) and less thrombus formation in vascular graft with aligned topography than vascular graft with smooth topography. However, no significant difference between the adhesion rates on both vascular grafts (smooth/aligned: 0.35[per mille sign]/0.12[per mille sign], p > 0.05) was observed. Moreover, both vascular grafts had few adherent activated platelets on the luminal surface. Bionic vascular graft showed enhanced blood compatibility due to the effect of surface topography. Therefore, it has considerable potential for using in clinical application.
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 10/2013; 13(1):79. DOI:10.1186/1471-2261-13-79 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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