A medium-throughput murine embryonic stem cell (mESC)-based high-content screening of 17000 small molecules for cardiogenesis led to the identification of a b-annulated 1,4-dihydropyridine (1,4-DHP) that inhibited transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)/Smad signaling by clearing the type II TGFβ receptor from the cell surface. Because this is an unprecedented mechanism of action, we explored the series' structure-activity relationship (SAR) based on TGFβ inhibition, and evaluated SAR aspects for cell-surface clearance of TGFβ receptor II (TGFBR2) and for biological activity in mESCs. We determined a pharmacophore and generated 1,4-DHPs with IC(50)s for TGFβ inhibition in the nanomolar range (e.g., compound 28, 170 nM). Stereochemical consequences of a chiral center at the 4-position was evaluated, revealing 10- to 15-fold more potent TGFβ inhibition for the (+)- than the (-) enantiomer. This stereopreference was not observed for the low level inhibition against Activin A signaling and was reversed for effects on calcium handling in HL-1 cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heteroaromatic structures are abundant in bioactive natural products, medicines, and other functional materials. Oxidative aromatization is a common method for preparing heteroaromatic species from simple building blocks. A bioinspired method was developed using robust flavin mimics as organocatalysts that perform O2-fueled oxidations of 1,4-dihydropyridines to pyridines and benzothiazolines to benzothiazoles in high yields (>95%) and purity at ambient temperature in methanol. The efficient oxidative aromatizations facilitated one-pot multicomponent syntheses of pyridines (from various aldehydes, dicarbonyl compounds, and ammonium acetate, in yields ranging from 35 to 95%) and benzothiazoles (from 2-aminothiophenol and various aldehydes, in 78–95% yield) without metals or reactive stoichiometric oxidants. For most substrates, neutral conditions were effective. Hindered 4-substituted dihydropyridines that oxidized slowly were accelerated by selection of more electrophilic flavin catalysts and the addition of various acids in a manner inversely proportional to pKa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Highly functionalized multi-substituted symmetric and asymmetric 1,4-dihydropyridines were concisely synthesized in moderate to good yields via one-pot multicomponent reactions (MCRs) of β-dicarbonyl compounds, aldehydes and amines at room temperature on montmorillonite. The merits of this method include the environmentally friendly reaction conditions, simple operation, broad substrate, satisfied yields and the reuse of the montmorillonite.
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