Germline mutations in the hereditary breast/ovary carcinoma genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 confer increased lifetime risk for ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal carcinoma. This risk can be minimized by prophylactic surgery. Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) provides 2 potential benefits: long-term cancer risk reduction and immediate detection of occult early carcinoma, which frequently arises in the tubal fimbriae. Recognition of occult early tubal carcinoma is challenging because it is often microscopic in size and can be confined to the fimbrial epithelium without invasion. Transitional cell metaplasia is a benign epithelial alteration that is a common finding in the serosa of the tube but is underrecognized in the tubal fimbriae, where it may mimic tubal intraepithelial carcinoma. The aim of this study was to define the incidence, morphology, immunophenotype, and distribution of transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae in RRSO specimens from 96 women with BRCA germline mutations and to compare these features to those of tubal intraepithelial carcinoma in this cohort. RRSO specimens from an additional 30 women at increased risk for ovarian cancer based on strong family history were also studied, along with RRSO from 1 patient with Lynch syndrome, and 1 patient with PTEN mutation. Transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae was present in 26% of all RRSO specimens. It was commonly multifocal (67%), with involvement of the tip, edges, or base of the fimbrial plicae. Average size of a metaplastic focus was 1.3 mm (range: 0.1 to 10 mm). None of the metaplastic foci expressed p53 by immunohistochemistry nor was there increased staining for the proliferation marker MIB-1. Occult early carcinoma was detected in 6/128 RRSO specimens. Median tumor size was 2.7 mm (range: 1 to 11 mm). All expressed p53 and showed markedly increased MIB-1 staining. The key criteria distinguishing transitional cell metaplasia from tubal intraepithelial carcinoma were uniform cell size and shape, normal nucleus:cytoplasm ratios, lack of nuclear atypia, presence of nuclear grooves, lack of mitoses, and absence of p53 expression or increased staining for MIB-1. No particular clinical variables (BRCA 1 vs. BRCA 2 mutation, parity, personal history of breast cancer, prior abdomino-pelvic surgery, or intraoperative findings) or benign pathologic alterations in the RRSO specimens were associated with the presence of transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae. None of the patients with this finding developed peritoneal carcinoma during follow-up ranging from 1 month to 9 years. This study demonstrates that transitional cell metaplasia of the fimbriae is a common benign finding in RRSO specimens that should not be confused with the much less common finding of tubal intraepithelial carcinoma.
"As discussed below, there are good indications that some ovarian cancer subtypes do not originate from ovarian surface epithelial cells, but from cells in the distal oviduct. The following observations corroborate this hypothesis: (i) reviewing prophylactically removed adnexa from women with a BRCA1/2 mutation showed a high incidence of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas in the distal oviduct and fimbriae , , . (ii) The three most prevalent ovarian cancer subtypes are morphologically reminiscent of different Müllerian duct-derived structures ). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In fertile women, the endometrium undergoes regular cycles of tissue build-up and regression. It is likely that uterine stem cells are involved in this remarkable turn over. The main goal of our current investigations was to identify slow-cycling (quiescent) endometrial stem cells by means of a pulse-chase approach to selectively earmark, prospectively isolate, and characterize label-retaining cells (LRCs). To this aim, transgenic mice expressing histone2B-GFP (H2B-GFP) in a Tet-inducible fashion were administered doxycycline (pulse) which was thereafter withdrawn from the drinking water (chase). Over time, dividing cells progressively loose GFP signal whereas infrequently dividing cells retain H2B-GFP expression. We evaluated H2B-GFP retaining cells at different chase time points and identified long-term (LT; >12 weeks) LRCs. The LT-LRCs are negative for estrogen receptor-α and express low levels of progesterone receptors. LRCs sorted by FACS are able to form spheroids capable of self-renewal and differentiation. Upon serum stimulation spheroid cells are induced to differentiate and form glandular structures which express markers of mature műllerian epithelial cells. Overall, the results indicate that quiescent cells located in the distal oviduct have stem-like properties and can differentiate into distinct cell lineages specific of endometrium, proximal and distal oviduct. Future lineage-tracing studies will elucidate the role played by these cells in homeostasis, tissue injury and cancer of the female reproductive tract in the mouse and eventually in man.
PLoS ONE 07/2012; 7(7):e40691. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0040691 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Parallel Monte Carlo simulation requires reliable RNGs. For sequential machines, good generators exist. It is not at all trivial to find high quality RNGs for parallel machines. We present a review of the main concepts to produce random numbers on parallel processors and further, we illustrate some phenomena that occur with parallelization
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our studies focused on applying program visualization techniques to concurrent programs, our approach is oriented to interaction, that is, to let the user the capability to interact with the classes that build up the programs at the sake of a better comprehension of its dynamic behaviour. Our goal is to help the programmers in interactively debugging Java programs with functionalities explicitly devoted to dealing with concurrent programs.
Automated Software Engineering, 2004. Proceedings. 19th International Conference on; 10/2004
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