Infant Feeding and Feeding Transitions During the First Year of Life
ABSTRACT Infancy is a time of rapid transition from a diet of virtually nothing but milk (either breast milk or infant formula) to a varied diet from nearly all food groups being consumed on a daily basis by most infants. Despite various recommendations about infant feeding, little is known about actual patterns of feeding among US infants. This article documents transitions in infant feeding patterns across the first year of life and determinants of key aspects of infant feeding.
Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, we analyzed responses to a 7-day food-recall chart that was administered every month. The sample size declined from 2907 at birth to 1782 at 12 months of age.
Although 83% of survey respondents initiated breastfeeding, the percentage who breastfed declined rapidly to 50% at 6 months and to 24% at 12 months. Many of the women who breastfed also fed their infants formula; 52% reported that their infants received formula while in the hospital. At 4 months, 40% of the infants had consumed infant cereal, 17% had consumed fruit or vegetable products, and <1% had consumed meat. Compared with infants who were not fed solid foods at 4 months, those who were fed solid foods were more likely to have discontinued breastfeeding at 6 months (70% vs 34%) and to have been fed fatty or sugary foods at 12 months (75% vs 62%).
Supplementing breast milk with infant formula while infants were still in the hospital was very common. Despite recommendations that complementary foods not be introduced to infants aged 4 months or younger, almost half of the infants in this study had consumed solid foods by the age of 4 months. This early introduction of complementary foods was associated with unhealthful subsequent feeding behaviors.
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a new conceptual model that generates predictions about breastfeeding decisions and identifies interactions that affect outcomes. We offer a contextual approach to infant feeding that models multi-directional influences by expanding on the evolutionary parent-offspring conflict and situation-specific breastfeeding theories. The main hypothesis generated from our framework suggests that simultaneously addressing breastfeeding costs and benefits, in relation to how they are interpreted by mothers, will be most effective. Our approach focuses on contributors to the attitudes and commitment underlying breastfeeding outcomes, beginning in the prenatal period. We conclude that some maternal-offspring conflict is inherent with the dynamic infant feeding relationship. Guidance that anticipates and addresses family trade-offs over time can be incorporated into breastfeeding support for families.Maternal and Child Nutrition 12/2011; DOI:10.1111/j.1740-8709.2011.00378.x · 2.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infancy is a sensitive period during which parenting is crucial to healthy development, and inadequate parenting may have serious and longlasting effects for children's health and development. While many domains of parenting have been widely studied, the specific daily practices involved in caring for infants have not been well researched, particularly outside the context of clinical settings for parents with recognized problems in parenting. This manuscript reviews and discusses the essential aspects of parenting infants, taking into account the essential developmental tasks of infants from birth to age one and using a comprehensive framework developed by Bradley and Caldwell (1995). Literature and research from pediatrics, nursing, psychology, human ecology, child development, and child and family studies are highlighted to illustrate what is known about the parenting of infants. Explication and exploration of the full range of parenting tasks with infants may serve as a foundation for social work research in a number of areas, including specific areas of neglectful parenting with infants and interventions for a range of parenting problems.Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 11/2003; 20(6):437-472. DOI:10.1023/B:CASW.0000003138.32550.a2
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ABSTRACT: To document working mothers' infant feeding practices and delineate factors that may shape infant feeding. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a community sample of working women with 8-month old infants (n=199). Nearly all working mothers used commercially prepared foods like infant cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Approximately one-fifth fed infants french fries, sweetened beverages, and sweetened desserts. Unhealthy infant feeding was elevated among unmarried mothers, those with less education, and those with a nonstandard work schedule. Working mothers use commercially prepared foods for infant feeding. Socially disadvantaged working mothers' infant feeding may pose health and developmental risks.American journal of health behavior 01/2010; 34(2):186-96. DOI:10.5993/AJHB.34.2.6 · 1.31 Impact Factor