Adolescent Immunizations: Missed Opportunities for Prevention
ABSTRACT The goals were (1) to describe immunization rates for tetanus-diphtheria, hepatitis B, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines among 13-year-old adolescents; (2) to identify missed opportunities for tetanus-diphtheria immunization among adolescents 11 to 17 years of age; and (3) to evaluate the association between preventive care use and tetanus-diphtheria immunization.
Adolescents born between January 1, 1986, and December 31, 1991, and enrolled in Harvard Pilgrim Health Care and Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates for >or=1 year in 1997-2004 were included. Immunization rates for tetanus-diphtheria, hepatitis B, and measles-mumps-rubella were assessed at 13 years of age. Missed opportunities for tetanus-diphtheria immunization within 14 days after a health care visit were measured. Multivariate models were used to determine predictors of timeliness of tetanus-diphtheria vaccination, particularly the use of preventive care services. RESULTS. A total of 23,987 eligible adolescents were enrolled in Harvard Pilgrim Health Care and Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates between 1997 and 2004. Among 13-year-old adolescents in the most recent birth cohort, 84%, 74%, and 67% were up to date for tetanus-diphtheria, hepatitis B, and measles-mumps-rubella, respectively. When the analysis was limited to those with >or=1 vaccine received before 2 years of age (a proxy measure for complete records), 92%, 82%, and 85% were up to date for tetanus-diphtheria, hepatitis B, and measles-mumps-rubella, respectively. Missed opportunities for tetanus-diphtheria immunization occurred at 84% of all health care visits. Adolescents who did not seek preventive care were less likely to receive tetanus-diphtheria in a timely manner.
Adolescent immunization rates lag far behind childhood rates, and missed opportunities are common. Additional strategies are needed to increase the use of preventive services among adolescents and to enable providers to vaccinate adolescents at every opportunity.
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- "This group might not need an additional medical practice visit solely for influenza vaccination since they would have been seen in the practice during the months when influenza vaccine would probably have been available there. We used this as a conservative estimate; some of these parents would have scheduled an additional primary care visit for influenza vaccination and, in some cases, children would not have been immunized during visits associated with acute illnesses . As a supplemental analysis, we estimated Component E, the costs averted by disease prevention (i.e., both reduced medical costs – because of reduced disease transmission to household members – and reduced loss of parental productivity from caring for a sick child), using the assumptions derived from the literature as follows . "
ABSTRACT: School-located vaccination against influenza (SLV-I) has been suggested to help meet the need for annual vaccination of large numbers of school-aged children with seasonal influenza vaccine. However, little is known about the cost and cost-effectiveness of SLV-I. We conducted a cost-analysis and a cost-effectiveness analysis based on a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an SLV-I program implemented in Monroe County, New York during the 2009-2010 vaccination season. We hypothesized that SLV-I is more cost effective, or less-costly, compared to a conventional, office-located influenza vaccination delivery. First and second SLV-I clinics were offered in 21 intervention elementary schools (n=9027 children) with standard of care (no SLV-I) in 11 control schools (n=4534 children). The direct costs, to purchase and administer vaccines, were estimated from our RCT. The effectiveness measure, receipt of ≥1 dose of influenza vaccine, was 13.2 percentage points higher in SLV-I schools than control schools. The school costs ($9.16/dose in 2009 dollars) plus project costs ($23.00/dose) plus vendor costs excluding vaccine purchase ($19.89/dose) was higher in direct costs ($52.05/dose) than the previously reported mean/median cost [$38.23/$21.44 per dose] for providing influenza vaccination in pediatric practices. However SLV-I averted parent costs to visit medical practices ($35.08 per vaccine). Combining direct and averted costs through Monte Carlo Simulation, SLV-I costs were $19.26/dose in net costs, which is below practice-based influenza vaccination costs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated to be $92.50 or $38.59 (also including averted parent costs). When additionally accounting for the costs averted by disease prevention (i.e., both reduced disease transmission to household members and reduced loss of productivity from caring for a sick child), the SLV-I model appears to be cost-saving to society, compared to "no vaccination". Our findings support the expanded implementation of SLV-I, but also the need to focus on efficient delivery to reduce direct costs.Vaccine 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.02.052 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We assessed influenza vaccination rates from 1992 to 2002, individual continuity of vaccination, and missed opportunities for vaccination in adolescents with high-risk conditions. We performed a retrospective observational study of 18 703 adolescents with high-risk conditions who were enrolled in a large health maintenance organization and received care at a multisite practice for >or=1 influenza season and the preceding year, between 1992 and 2002, was performed. Subjects were identified as having a high-risk condition if they had >or=1 visit with an associated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code during the season or previous year. Influenza vaccination rates were compared by season in logistic regression analyses, using generalized estimating equations for repeated measurements of subjects enrolled for multiple seasons. Vaccination continuity was measured for adolescents who were enrolled for 4 consecutive seasons (1999-2002) as the number of seasons during which vaccine was received. Missed opportunities were defined as visits during the first 4 months of influenza season at which an unvaccinated adolescent did not receive vaccine. For adolescents with high-risk conditions, influenza vaccination rates varied from 8.3% to 15.4%. Rates improved significantly from 1992 to 1993, from 8.3% to 12.8%, and again in 2001, reaching 15.4%. Only 11.1% of those enrolled continuously from 1999 to 2002 received vaccine during all 4 seasons. According to season from 1992 to 2002, 45.7% to 53.6% of unvaccinated subjects had >or=1 missed opportunity. Influenza vaccination rates in adolescents with high-risk conditions improved from 1992 to 2002 but were still low in recent years. Individual vaccination continuity was poor. Numerous opportunities already exist for improving coverage.PEDIATRICS 11/2008; 122(5):920-8. DOI:10.1542/peds.2007-3032 · 5.30 Impact Factor
Article: Immunization update II.Advances in Pediatrics 01/2009; 56:29-46. DOI:10.1016/j.yapd.2009.08.011