Carotid artery stenting has increased rates of postprocedure stroke, death, and resource utilization than does carotid endarterectomy in the United States, 2005
ABSTRACT Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) remains the procedure of choice for treatment of patients with severe carotid artery stenosis. The role of carotid artery stenting (CAS) in this patient group is still being defined. Prior single and multicenter studies have demonstrated economic savings associated with CEA compared with CAS. The purpose of this study was to compare surgical outcomes and resource utilization associated with these two procedures at the national level in 2005, the first year in which a specific ICD-9 procedure code for CAS was available.
All patient discharges for carotid revascularization for the year 2005 were identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample based on ICD9-CM procedure codes for CEA (38.12) and CAS (00.63). The primary outcome measures of interest were in-hospital mortality and postoperative stroke; secondary outcome measures included total hospital charges and length of stay (LOS). All statistical analyses were performed using SAS version 9.1 (Cary, NC), and data are weighted according to the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) design to draw national estimates. Univariate analyses of categorical variables were performed using Rao-Scott chi(2), and continuous variables were analyzed by survey weighted analysis of variance (ANOVA). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to evaluate independent predictors of postoperative stroke and mortality.
During 2005, an estimated 135,701 patients underwent either CEA or CAS nationally. Overall, 91% of patients underwent CEA. The mean age overall was 71 years. Postoperative stroke rates were increased for CAS compared with CEA (1.8% vs 1.1%, P < .05), odds ratio (OR) 1.7; (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.3). Overall, mortality rates were higher for CAS compared with CEA (1.1% vs 0.57%, P < .05) this difference was substantially increased in regard to patients with symptomatic disease (4.6% vs 1.4%, P < .05). By logistic regression, CAS trended toward increased mortality, OR 1.5; (95% CI .96-2.5). Overall, the median total hospital charges for patients that underwent CAS were significantly greater than those that underwent CEA ($30,396 vs $17,658 P < .05).
Based on a large representative sample during the year 2005, CEA was performed with significantly lower in-hospital mortality, postoperative stroke rates, and lower median total hospital charges than CAS in US hospitals. As the role for CAS becomes defined for the management of patients with carotid artery stenosis, clinical as well as economic outcomes must be continually evaluated.
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ABSTRACT: Carotid therosclerotic disease causes approximately 25% of the nearly 690,000 ischemic strokes each year in the United States. Current risk stratification based on percent stenosis does not provide specific information on the actual risk of stroke for most individuals. Prospective randomized studies have found only 10 to 12% of asymptomatic patients will have a symptomatic stroke within 5 years. Measurements of percent stenosis do not determine plaque stability or composition. Reports have concluded that cerebral ischemic events associated with carotid plaque are intimately associated with plaque instability. Analysis of retrospective studies has found that plaque composition is important in risk stratification. Only MRI has the ability to identify and measure the detailed components and morphology of carotid plaque and provides more detailed information than other currently available techniques. MRI can accurately detect carotid hemorrhage, and MRI identified carotid hemorrhage correlates with acute stroke.Magnetic Resonance Insights 01/2015; 8(Suppl 1). DOI:10.4137/MRI.S23560
- 10/2014; 5(2):74-6. DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1390027
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ABSTRACT: Current American Heart Association guidelines recommend carotid revascularization for asymptomatic patients on the basis of life expectancy. To determine the rates and predictors of 5-year survival in elderly patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis who underwent either carotid artery stent placement (CAS) or carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The rates of 5-year survival were determined by use of Kaplan-Meier survival methods in a representative sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries ≥65 years of age who underwent CAS or CEA for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis with postprocedural follow-up of 3.4 ± 1.7 years. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the relative risk of all-cause mortality for patients in the presence of selected comorbidities, including ischemic heart disease, chronic renal failure, and atrial fibrillation, after adjustment for potential confounders such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and procedure type. A total of 22 177 patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis were treated with either CAS (n = 2144) or CEA (n = 20 033). The overall estimated 5-year survival rate (±SE) was 95.3 ± 0.00149; it was 95.5% and 93.8% in patients treated with CEA and CAS, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, relative risk of all-cause 5-year mortality was significantly higher among patients with atrial fibrillation (relative risk, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-2.1) and those with chronic renal failure (relative risk, 2.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-2.6). Risks and benefits must be carefully weighed before carotid revascularization in elderly patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis who have concurrent atrial fibrillation or chronic renal failure. CAS, carotid artery stent placementCEA, carotid endarterectomyCI, confidence intervalICD-9-CM, International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical ModificationRR, relative risk.Neurosurgery 01/2015; 76(1):34-41. DOI:10.1227/NEU.0000000000000551 · 3.03 Impact Factor