Interest of liposomal doxorubicin as a radiosensitizer in malignant glioma xenografts.
ABSTRACT Malignant glioma patients have a life expectancy reduced to about 15 months despite aggressive surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy. Doxorubicin has shown a marked cytotoxic effect against malignant glioma cells in vitro. The brain exposure to this drug is, however, hindered by the blood-brain barrier. Encapsulation of doxorubicin in liposomal carriers has been shown to reduce toxicities and to improve brain tumors exposure to doxorubicin. In this study, we evaluated the radiosensitizing properties of a nonpegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Myocet, MYO) on two subcutaneous (U87 and TCG4) and one intracranial (U87) malignant glioma models xenografted on nude mice. Doxorubicin biodistribution was assessed by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. Antitumor efficacy was investigated by tumor volume measurements and mice survival determination. We showed that (i) encapsulation of doxorubicin ensured a preferential deposition of doxorubicin in tumoral tissue in comparison with free doxorubicin; (ii) doxorubicin accumulated in both subcutaneous and intracranial tumors during repeated injections of MYO and this accumulation was linked to the potentiation of RT efficacy on two subcutaneous models; (iii) MYO was unable to improve the antitumoral efficacy of RT on an intracranial glioma model. Finally, this study emphasizes the importance of performing preclinical studies on models closer as possible of human tumors and localization to be more predictive of therapeutic effects observed in humans.
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ABSTRACT: In high-grade gliomas, the identification of patients that could benefit from EGFR inhibitors remains a challenge, hindering the use of these agents. Using xenografts models, we evaluated the antitumor effect of the combined treatment "gefitinib + radiotherapy" and aimed to identify the profile of responsive tumors. Expression of phosphorylated proteins involved in the EGFR-dependent signaling pathways was analyzed in 10 glioma models. We focused on three models of anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (TCG2, TCG3 and TCG4) harboring high levels of phospho-EGFR, phospho-AKT and phospho-MEK1. They were treated with gefitinib (GEF 75 mg/kg/day x 5 days/week, for 2 weeks) and/or fractionated radiotherapy (RT: 5x2Gy/week for 2 weeks). Our results showed that GEF and/or RT induced significant tumor growth delays. However, only the TCG3 xenografts were highly responsive to the combination GEF+RT, with ∼50% of tumor cure. Phosphoproteins analysis five days after treatment onset demonstrated in TCG3 xenografts, but not in TCG2 model, that the EGFR-dependent pathways were inhibited after GEF treatment. Moreover, TCG3-bearing mice receiving GEF monotherapy exhibited a transient beneficial therapeutic response, rapidly followed by tumor regrowth, along with a major vascular remodeling. Taken together, our data evoked an "EGFR-addictive" behavior for TCG3 tumors. This study confirms that combination of gefitinib with fractionated irradiation could be a potent therapeutic strategy for anaplastic oligodendrogliomas harboring EGFR abnormalities but this treatment seems mainly beneficial for "EGFR-addictive" tumors. Unfortunately, neither the usual molecular markers (EGFR amplification, PTEN loss) nor the basal overexpression of phosphoproteins were useful to distinguish this responsive tumor. Evaluating the impact of TKIs on the EGFR-dependent pathways during the treatment might be more relevant, and requires further validation. Full text: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0068333PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e68333. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Free doxorubicin (DXR) is not currently used to treat brain tumors because (i) the blood-brain barrier limits the drug deposition into the brain (ii) lethal toxic effects occur when combined with radiation therapy. Since encapsulation of DXR within liposomal carriers could overcome these drawbacks, the present study aimed at evaluating the radiosensitizing properties of non-pegylated (NPL-DXR) and pegylated (PL-DXR) liposomal doxorubicin on orthotopic high-grade glioma xenografts (U87).Pharmaceutical Research 07/2014; · 3.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Therapy of cats suffering from feline injection site sarcomas (FISS) is still a challenging problem, as the recurrence rate after surgery is up to 70%. Four FISS-derived primary tumour cell lines and corresponding xenograft tumour mouse models were established to evaluate the efficacy of a concomitant chemo-/radiation therapy with doxorubicin. In vitro, strongly depending upon the timing of administration, pre-treatment with 0.25 µmol doxorubicin resulted in a significant enhancement of radiation-induced (3.5 Gy) tumour cell death. This result was confirmed in vivo, where only the combined chemo-/radiation therapy resulted in a significant reduction in tumour growth compared to the respective mono-therapies with either doxorubicin or radiation. These results support the use of the concomitant chemo-/radiation therapy for adjuvant treatment of FISS, particularly in advanced or recurrent disease where surgery alone is no longer feasible.Research in Veterinary Science 10/2014; · 1.51 Impact Factor