We have previously reported improved caregiver mental health and infant behavior at 2 years following a home-based preventive care program for very preterm infants and their caregivers. This study aimed to determine the longer-term effectiveness of the program by reviewing caregivers and children at preschool age.
One hundred twenty very preterm infants (<30 weeks' gestation) were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 61) or control (n = 59) groups. The intervention included 9 home visits over the first year of life targeting infant development, parent mental health, and the parent-infant relationship. The control group received standard care. At 4 years' corrected age, child cognitive, behavioral, and motor functioning and caregiver mental health were assessed.
At age 4 years, 105 (89%) children were reviewed. There was little evidence of differences in cognitive or motor functioning between groups. The intervention group had lower scores for child internalizing behaviors than the control group (mean difference -5.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] -9.6 to -0.9, P = .02). Caregivers in the intervention group had fewer anxiety symptoms (mean difference -1.8, 95% CI -3.3 to -0.4, P = .01) and were less likely to exhibit "at-risk" anxiety (odds ratio 0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.7, P = .01) than those in the control group.
This home-based preventive care program for very preterm infants has selective long-term benefits, including less caregiver anxiety and reduced preschooler internalizing behaviors.
"Preterm births with very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; birth weight < 1500 g) exert unfavorable effects on not only maternal psychological wellness (Saigal & Doyle, 2008) and mother–infant interaction (Bozzette, 2007) but also child developmental outcomes (Aarnoudse-Moens, Weisglas-Kuperus, van Goudoever, & Oosterlaan, 2009; Saigal & Doyle, 2008). In Western countries, various interventions have been developed for preterm infants that yielded small motor benefits in early infancy and moderate cognitive benefits from infancy to preschool age (Orton, Spittle, Doyle, Anderson, & Boyd, 2009; Spittle, Orton, Anderson, Boyd, & Doyle, 2012; Vanderveen, Bassler, Robertson, & Kirpalani, 2009), but inconclusive effects on behavioral outcome (Blair, 2002; Brooks-Gunn, Klebanov, Liaw, & Spiker, 1993; Kaaresen et al., 2008; Kleberg, Westrup, & Stjernqvist, 2000; Koldewijn et al., 2010, 2005, 2009; Nordhov, Ronning, Ulvund, Dahl, & Kaaresen, 2012; Spencer-Smith et al., 2012; Spittle et al., 2010; Westrup, Bohm, Lagercrantz, & Stjernqvist, 2004). The investigation in Eastern societies has been limited to only one study in China, which showed cognitive benefits (Bao, Sun, Wei, & Coo, 1999). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects and mediators of a clinic-based intervention program (CBIP) and a home-based intervention program (HBIP) compared with usual care in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants on developmental and behavioral outcomes at 24 months of age (corrected for prematurity). In this randomized controlled trial, VLBW preterm infants received either CBIP (n=57), HBIP (n=63), or usual care (n=58) from hospitalization to 12 months. At 12 months, infant emotional regulation was assessed using the toy-behind-barrier procedure and dyadic interaction was observed during free play. At 24 months, infant developmental and behavioral outcomes were assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development- 3rd edition and the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5, respectively. Compared with infants under usual care, the CBIP-group infants showed higher cognitive composite scores (difference, 95% confidence interval (CI)=4.4, 0.8-7.9) and a lower rate of motor delay (odds ratio (OR), 95% CI=0.29, 0.08-0.99); the HBIP-group infants had lower sleep problem scores (difference, 95% CI=-1.4, -2.5 to -0.3) and a lower rate of internalizing problems at 24 months (OR, 95% CI=0.51, 0.28-0.93) (all p<.05). The CBIP's effect on cognitive outcome was attenuated when maternal or dyadic interactive behavior was considered; whereas the HBIP's effect on sleep and internalizing behavior was attenuated when duration of orientation to a toy or object was considered. In conclusions, interventions enhanced the cognitive, motor, and behavioral outcomes of VLBW preterm infants. The effects on cognitive and behavioral outcomes might be mediated by early-improved mother-infant interaction and infant emotional regulation, respectively.
Research in Developmental Disabilities 06/2014; 35(10):2384-2393. DOI:10.1016/j.ridd.2014.06.009 · 3.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim:
To assess the predictive validity of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development - Third Edition (Bayley-III) for later motor outcome.
Ninety-six infants (49 males, 47 females) born at less than 30 weeks' gestation admitted to two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, were assessed with the Bayley-III Motor Scale at 2 years' corrected age and were classified as suspect or definite motor impairment if they scored less than -1 or -2 standard deviations respectively, relative to the test mean. At 4 years' corrected age, children completed Movement Assessment Battery for Children - Second Edition (MABC-2); for the total motor score, cut-offs of not more than the 15th were used to classify motor development and cut-offs of not more than the 15th centile were classified as having a significant movement difficulty.
Of the 96 children assessed at both ages, at 2 years 9% had suspect and 4% had definite motor impairment; however, by 4 years, rates had increased to 22% and 19% respectively. The specificity of the Bayley-III for motor impairments for later motor outcome was excellent (ranging from 94 to 100% for cerebral palsy [CP] and 97 to 100% for motor impairment), although the sensitivity was low (ranging from 67 to 83% for CP and 18 to 37% for motor impairment); many children with later impairment were not identified by the Bayley-III.
The Bayley-III Motor Scale at 2 years underestimates later rates of motor impairment, particularly in the absence of CP at 4 years on the MABC-2 total motor score in children born at less than 30 weeks' gestational age.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Although ~50% of very preterm (VP) children have neurodevelopmental impairments, early prediction of infants who will experience problems later in life remains a challenge. This study evaluated the predictive value of general movements (GM; spontaneous and endogenous movements) at 1 and 3 months' corrected age for neurodevelopment at 2 and 4 years of age in VP children.
At 1 and 3 months' corrected age, infants born <30 weeks' gestation had GM assessed as normal or abnormal. Motor, cognitive, and language development at 2 years was assessed by using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition. At 4 years, cognitive and language outcomes were assessed by using the Differential Ability Scale-Second Edition and motor outcomes with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition; a diagnosis of cerebral palsy was documented.
Ninety-nine VP infants were recruited, with 97% and 88% of survivors followed up at age 2 and 4 years, respectively. Abnormal GM at 1 month were associated with worse motor outcomes at 2 and 4 years but not language or cognitive outcomes. Abnormal GM at 3 months were associated with worse motor, cognitive, and language outcomes at both 2 and 4 years. Overall, GM at 1 month demonstrated better sensitivity to impairments at 2 and 4 years, whereas GM at 3 months had better specificity and were more accurate overall at distinguishing between children with and without impairment.
Abnormal GM in VP infants, particularly at 3 months postterm, are predictive of worse neurodevelopment at ages 2 and 4 years.
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