Long-term Benefits of Home-based Preventive Care for Preterm Infants: A Randomized Trial
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:We have previously reported improved caregiver mental health and infant behavior at 2 years following a home-based preventive care program for very preterm infants and their caregivers. This study aimed to determine the longer-term effectiveness of the program by reviewing caregivers and children at preschool age.METHODS:One hundred twenty very preterm infants (<30 weeks' gestation) were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 61) or control (n = 59) groups. The intervention included 9 home visits over the first year of life targeting infant development, parent mental health, and the parent-infant relationship. The control group received standard care. At 4 years' corrected age, child cognitive, behavioral, and motor functioning and caregiver mental health were assessed.RESULTS:At age 4 years, 105 (89%) children were reviewed. There was little evidence of differences in cognitive or motor functioning between groups. The intervention group had lower scores for child internalizing behaviors than the control group (mean difference -5.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] -9.6 to -0.9, P = .02). Caregivers in the intervention group had fewer anxiety symptoms (mean difference -1.8, 95% CI -3.3 to -0.4, P = .01) and were less likely to exhibit "at-risk" anxiety (odds ratio 0.3, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.7, P = .01) than those in the control group.CONCLUSIONS:This home-based preventive care program for very preterm infants has selective long-term benefits, including less caregiver anxiety and reduced preschooler internalizing behaviors.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that maternal grand multiparity may predict an increased risk of mental disorders in young adult offspring, but whether such effects persist throughout adulthood remains unknown. The current study examined if maternal grand multiparity predicts the risks of severe mental disorders, suicides, suicide attempts and dementias throughout adult life. Our study sample comprised 13243 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944 participants (6905 men and 6338 women). According to hospital birth records, 341 offspring were born to grand multiparous mothers. From Finnish national hospital discharge and causes of death registers, we identified 1682 participants diagnosed with mental disorders during 1969-2010. Maternal grand multiparity predicted significantly increased risks of mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 1.64, p = 0.03), non-psychotic mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.02, p = 0.002), and suicide attempts (Hazard Ratio = 3.94, p = 0.01) in adult offspring. Furthermore, women born to grand multiparous mothers had significantly increased risks of any severe mental disorder (Hazard Ratio = 1.79, p = 0.01), non-psychotic substance use disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.77, p = 0.02) schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.40, p = 0.02), mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.40, p = 0.002), non-psychotic mood disorders (Hazard Ratio = 2.91, p<0.001), and suicide attempts (Hazard Ratio = 5.05, p = 0.01) in adulthood. The effects of maternal grand multiparity on offspring psychopathology risk were independent of maternal age and body mass index at childbirth, and of year of birth, sex, childhood socioeconomic position, and birth weight of the offspring. In contrast, no significant effects were found among men. Women born to grand multiparous mothers are at an increased risk of severe mental disorders and suicide attempts across adulthood. Our findings may inform the development of preventive interventions for mental disorders.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114679. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114679 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infants with possible cerebral palsy (CP) are commonly assumed to benefit from early diagnosis and early intervention, but substantial evidence for this is lacking. There is no consensus in the literature on a definition of ‘early’, but this review focuses on interventions initiated within the first 6 months after term age. We cover basic neuroscience, arguing for a beneficial effect of early intervention, and discuss why clinical research to support this convincingly is lacking. We argue that infants offered early intervention in future clinical studies must be identified carefully, and that the intervention should be focused on infants showing early signs of CP to determine an effect of treatment. Such signs may be efficiently detected by a combination of neuroimaging and the General Movements Assessment. We propose a research agenda directed at large-scale identification of infants showing early signs of CP and testing of high-intensity, early interventions.Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 07/2014; 57(1). DOI:10.1111/dmcn.12531 · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this systematic review was to determine the efficacy of parenting interventions for parents of preterm infants to improve child behavior. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of parenting interventions for parents of preterm infants were included. Searchers were conducted of PubMed from 1951 to April 2013, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) from 1982 to April 2013, Scopus from 1966 to April 2013, PsycINFO from 1840 to April 2013, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Twelve RCTs were identified that assessed child behavior. Of these studies, only data from three were able to be pooled for meta-analysis: the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) at 3 years, the Mother-Infant Transaction Program (modified; MITP-M) at 5 years, and the Victorian Infant Brain Studies (VIBeS Plus) at 4 years. Outcome from this analysis revealed a small, but significant, effect on child behavior favoring the intervention (95% CI: 0.08-0.32; p = .001). There is evidence that preterm parenting interventions can improve child behavior. Streamlined interventions such as MITP-M and VIBeS Plus that have a strong focus on the mother-infant relationship may have greatest potential. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.Infant Mental Health Journal 11/2014; 35(6). DOI:10.1002/imhj.21480 · 0.61 Impact Factor