ABSTRACT Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios.
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ABSTRACT: Dexmedetomidine is currently used in the US in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting, although data to support this practice are limited. Dexmedetomidine targets the noradrenergic system, an important but frequently overlooked secondary mechanism in the development of AWS, and, in doing so, may reduce the need for excessive benzodiazepine use which can increase the risk of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated deliriogenesis and respiratory depression. The purpose of this narrative review is to evaluate available literature reporting on the safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine for AWS in the ICU setting. An English-language MEDLINE search (1966 to July 2013) was performed to identify articles evaluating the efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine for AWS. Case series, case reports and controlled trials were evaluated for topic relevance and clinical applicability. Reference lists of articles retrieved through this search were reviewed to identify any relevant publications. Studies focusing on the safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine for AWS in humans were selected. Studies were included if they were published as full articles; abstracts alone were not included in this review. Eight published case studies and case series were identified. Based on a limited body of evidence, dexmedetomidine shows promise as a potentially safe and possibly effective adjuvant treatment for AWS in the ICU. Prospective, well-controlled studies are needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of the use of dexmedetomidine in AWS.CNS Drugs 08/2013; DOI:10.1007/s40263-013-0106-6
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ABSTRACT: Dose-response relationships for most addictive substances are "inverted U"-shaped. Addictive substances produce both positive features that include reward, euphoria, anxiolysis, withdrawal-relief, and negative features that include aversion, dysphoria, anxiety and withdrawal symptoms. A simple model differentially associates ascending and descending limbs of dose-response curves with rewarding and aversive influences, respectively. However, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) diagnoses of substance dependence fail to incorporate dose-response criteria and don't directly consider balances between euphoric and dysphoric drug effects. Classical genetic studies document substantial heritable influences on DSM substance dependence. Linkage and genome wide association studies identify modest-sized effects at any locus. Nevertheless, clusters of SNPs within selected genes display 10(-2)>p>10(-8) associations with dependence in many independent samples. For several of these genes, evidence for cis-regulatory, level-of-expression differences supports the validity of mouse models in which levels of expression are also altered. This review documents surprising, recently defined cases in which convergent evidence from humans and mouse models supports central influences of altered dose-response relationships in mediating the impact of relevant genomic variation on addiction phenotypes. For variation at loci for the α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, cadherin 13, receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase Δ and neuronal cell adhesion molecule genes, changed dose-response relationships conferred by gene knockouts in mice are accompanied by supporting human data. These observations emphasize desirability of carefully elucidating dose-response relationships for both rewarding and aversive features of abused substances wherever possible. They motivate consideration of individual differences in dose-response relationships in addiction nosology and therapeutics.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 11/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.10.013
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ABSTRACT: Background and purposeDrugs that more potently or effectively reduce ethanol-maintained behavior versus an alternative are considered selective and are considered promising pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. Such results are often obtained using separate groups or multiple schedules where ethanol and the alternative are available alone or sequentially. Recently, we observed that when ethanol and food were available sequentially under a multiple schedule, fluvoxamine and varenicline were selective; yet this selectivity disappeared when ethanol and food were concurrently available.Experimental approachWe examined the generality of these findings by comparing doses of several drugs required to decrease ethanol- and food-maintained responding under a multiple schedule and under a concurrent schedule. Effects were determined for chlordiazepoxide, 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), morphine, naltrexone, and d-amphetamine.Key resultsUnder the multiple schedule, ED50 values for decreases in ethanol-maintained responding were significantly different and lower than ED50s for decreases in food-maintained responding (demonstrating selectivity) for each drug except for chlordiazepoxide (which was equipotent) and naltrexone (which did not affect responding). However, this selectivity vanished or even inverted under the concurrent schedule, such that ED50 values for decreasing ethanol- and food-maintained responding were not different (or, following DOI, the ED50 for food-maintained responding was lower than for ethanol-maintained responding).Conclusions and implicationsResults are consistent with those seen following fluvoxamine and varenicline administration, and suggest that selectivity is assay-dependent. These results indicate the need for careful interpretation of selective drug effects, especially when obtained in situations where ethanol or the alternative is the only programmed reinforcement available.British Journal of Pharmacology 04/2014; DOI:10.1111/bph.12707