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Available from: Guy Jean Jacques Vernet, Jun 22, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Infections caused by Human Rhinoviruses (HRVs) account for 25-50% of respiratory illnesses among individuals presenting influenza-like illness (ILI). HRVs could be classified in at least three species: HRV-A, HRV-B, and HRV-C. The HRV-C species has frequently been described among children and has led to severe illness resulting in hospitalization; however, the occurrence among adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical presentation and species distribution of HRV infections in different populations during 2001-2008. A total of 770 samples were collected. Subjects consisted of 136 adults from the general community and 207 health-care workers (2001-2003), 232 renal-transplanted outpatients (2002-2004), 70 children with congenital heart disease (2005) and 125 children from a day-care center (2008). Amplification of HRV genes was performed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. HRV was detected in 27.4% of samples (211/770), with 72 children (36.9%) and 139 adults infected (24.2%). A total of 89.61% (138/154) unknown HRV strains were sequenced, and 79.22% (122/138) were analyzed. We identified 74 isolates (60.7%) of the HRV A species, 21 (17.2%) of the HRV B species and 27 isolates (22.1%) of the HRV C species. HRV species A and B caused ILI among adult patients, whereas HRV-C did not. The dynamics of infection among different species deserve further analysis. J. Med. Virol. 82:2110-2115, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 12/2010; 82(12):2110-5. DOI:10.1002/jmv.21914 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although often ignored, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the most frequent causes of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). A group of closely related novel rhinoviruses have recently been discovered. Based on their unique phylogenetic position and distinct genomic features, they are classified as a separate species, HRV-C. After their discovery, HRV-C viruses have been detected in patients worldwide, with a reported prevalence of 1.4-30.9% among tested specimens. This suggests that the species contribute to a significant proportion of RTIs that were unrecognized in the past. HRV-C is also the predominant HRV species, often with a higher detection rate than that of the two previously known species, HRV-A and HRV-B. HRV-C infections appear to peak in fall or winter in most temperate or subtropical countries, but may predominate in the rainy season in the tropics. In children, HRV-C is often associated with upper RTIs, with asthma exacerbation and wheezing episodes being common complications. The virus has also been detected in children with bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis and systemic infections complicated by pericarditis. As for adults, HRV-C has been associated with more severe disease such as pneumonia and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, larger clinical studies with asymptomatic controls are required to better define the significance of HRV-C infection in the adult population. On the basis of VP4 sequence analysis, a potential distinct subgroup within HRV-C has also been identified, although more complete genome sequences are needed to better define the genetic diversity of HRV-C.
    Emerging Health Threats Journal 06/2010; 3:e2. DOI:10.3134/ehtj.10.002
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    ABSTRACT: Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children both in developed and developing countries. A wide range of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs), adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV), have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children in the past decades. However, in the last ten years thanks to progress in molecular technologies, newly discovered viruses have been identified including human Metapneumovirus (hMPV), coronaviruses NL63 (HcoV-NL63) and HKU1 (HcoV-HKU1), human Bocavirus (HBoV), new enterovirus (HEV), parechovirus (HpeV) and rhinovirus (HRV) strains, polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV) and KI (KIPyV) and the pandemic H1N1v influenza A virus. These discoveries have heavily modified previous knowledge on respiratory infections mainly highlighting that pediatric population is exposed to a variety of viruses with similar seasonal patterns. In this context establishing a causal link between a newly identified virus and the disease as well as an association between mixed infections and an increase in disease severity can be challenging. This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood.
    Virology Journal 10/2012; 9(1):247. DOI:10.1186/1743-422X-9-247 · 2.09 Impact Factor