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Available from: Guy Jean Jacques Vernet, Oct 08, 2015
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    • "Another study limitation could have been the sensitivity of the screening procedure, as some authors have suggested that inclusion of capsid coding sequences in the PCR target region may slightly decrease screening sensitivity in comparison with the use of 5 0 UTR alone [Kiang et al., 2008; Savolainen-Kopra et al., 2009]. However, as pointed out by Savolainen-Kopra et al. [2009], inclusion of capsid coding sequences makes the assay more robust for genetic typing, and this assay has been used in studies by other groups [Savolainen et al., 2002; Coiras et al., 2004; Kistler et al., 2007; Lau et al., 2007; Renwick et al., 2007; Xiang et al., 2008; Jin et al., 2009; Savolainen-Kopra et al., 2009]. Even if a few HRVs were missed by the assay used in our study, our aim was to present evidence of the circulation of the HRV species in Sao Paulo among different risk groups, and we consider that purpose to have been achieved. "
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    ABSTRACT: Infections caused by Human Rhinoviruses (HRVs) account for 25-50% of respiratory illnesses among individuals presenting influenza-like illness (ILI). HRVs could be classified in at least three species: HRV-A, HRV-B, and HRV-C. The HRV-C species has frequently been described among children and has led to severe illness resulting in hospitalization; however, the occurrence among adults is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical presentation and species distribution of HRV infections in different populations during 2001-2008. A total of 770 samples were collected. Subjects consisted of 136 adults from the general community and 207 health-care workers (2001-2003), 232 renal-transplanted outpatients (2002-2004), 70 children with congenital heart disease (2005) and 125 children from a day-care center (2008). Amplification of HRV genes was performed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. HRV was detected in 27.4% of samples (211/770), with 72 children (36.9%) and 139 adults infected (24.2%). A total of 89.61% (138/154) unknown HRV strains were sequenced, and 79.22% (122/138) were analyzed. We identified 74 isolates (60.7%) of the HRV A species, 21 (17.2%) of the HRV B species and 27 isolates (22.1%) of the HRV C species. HRV species A and B caused ILI among adult patients, whereas HRV-C did not. The dynamics of infection among different species deserve further analysis. J. Med. Virol. 82:2110-2115, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 12/2010; 82(12):2110-5. DOI:10.1002/jmv.21914 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    • "HRV-C has been detected frequently in children with LRTIs including bronchitis, bronchiolitis and pneumonia.23, 24, 27, 33, 37, 39, 40 This suggests that these viruses are also associated with more severe respiratory disease. However, a recent report did not find that HRV-C strains had greater clinical impact than HRV-A or HRV-B on respiratory compromise in children with LRTI.41 HRV-C has also been detected in children with acute otitis media and acute sinusitis, in addition to RTIs.24, 40 This fact is supported in a recent study in Finland, which reported the presence of the virus in the middle-ear fluid of young children with acute otitis media.31 "
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    ABSTRACT: Although often ignored, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the most frequent causes of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). A group of closely related novel rhinoviruses have recently been discovered. Based on their unique phylogenetic position and distinct genomic features, they are classified as a separate species, HRV-C. After their discovery, HRV-C viruses have been detected in patients worldwide, with a reported prevalence of 1.4-30.9% among tested specimens. This suggests that the species contribute to a significant proportion of RTIs that were unrecognized in the past. HRV-C is also the predominant HRV species, often with a higher detection rate than that of the two previously known species, HRV-A and HRV-B. HRV-C infections appear to peak in fall or winter in most temperate or subtropical countries, but may predominate in the rainy season in the tropics. In children, HRV-C is often associated with upper RTIs, with asthma exacerbation and wheezing episodes being common complications. The virus has also been detected in children with bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis and systemic infections complicated by pericarditis. As for adults, HRV-C has been associated with more severe disease such as pneumonia and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, larger clinical studies with asymptomatic controls are required to better define the significance of HRV-C infection in the adult population. On the basis of VP4 sequence analysis, a potential distinct subgroup within HRV-C has also been identified, although more complete genome sequences are needed to better define the genetic diversity of HRV-C.
    Emerging Health Threats Journal 06/2010; 3:e2. DOI:10.3134/ehtj.10.002
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    ABSTRACT: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a highly prevalent cause of acute respiratory infection in children. They are classified into at least three species, HRV-A, HRV-B and HRV-C, which are characterized by sequencing the 5' untranslated region (UTR) or the VP4/VP2 region of the genome. Given the increased interest for novel HRV strain identification and their worldwide distribution, we have carried out clinical and molecular diagnosis of HRV strains in a 2-year study of children with acute respiratory infection visiting one district hospital in Shanghai. We cloned and sequenced a 924-nt fragment that covered part of the 5'UTR and the VP4/VP2 capsid genes. Sixty-four HRV-infected outpatients were diagnosed amongst 827 children with acute low respiratory tract infection. Two samples were co-infected with HRV-A and HRV-B or HRV-C. By comparative analysis of the VP4/VP2 sequences of the 66 HRVs, we showed a high diversity of strains in HRV-A and HRV-B species, and a prevalence of 51.5% of strains that belonged to the recently identified HRV-C species. When analyzing a fragment of the 5' UTR, we characterized at least two subspecies of HRV-C: HRV-Cc, which clustered differently from HRV-A and HRV-B, and HRV-Ca, which resulted from previous recombination in this region with sequences related to HRV-A. The full-length sequence of one strain of each HRV-Ca and HRV-Cc subspecies was obtained for comparative analysis. We confirmed the close relationship of their structural proteins but showed apparent additional recombination events in the 2A gene and 3'UTR of the HRV-Ca strain. Double or triple infections with HRV-C and respiratory syncytial virus and/or bocavirus were diagnosed in 33.3% of the HRV-infected patients, but no correlation with severity of clinical outcome was observed. Our study showed a high diversity of HRV strains that cause bronchitis and pneumonia in children. A predominance of HRV-C over HRV-A and HRV-B was observed, and two subspecies of HRV-C were identified, the diversity of which seemed to be related to recombination with former HRV-A strains. None of the HRV-C strains appeared to have a higher clinical impact than HRV-A or HRV-B on respiratory compromise.
    PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(7):e6355. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0006355 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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